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Correction to: Caregiver Burden and Work Productivity Among Japanese Working Family Caregivers of People with Dementia

  • Satoko FujiharaEmail author
  • Akiomi Inoue
  • Kazumi Kubota
  • Kim Fong Roseline Yong
  • Katsunori Kondo
Correction

Correction to: Int. J. Behav. Med.

  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12529-018-9753-9

The authors have noted that the number of participants in the final sample should be 377, rather than 379. In this correction, the two mistaken cases were removed and analyses were repeated with 377 cases. This resulted in changes to the reported standard partial regression coefficients (β) of the main effect of caregiver burden on presenteeism. Also, Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for job demands and job control measures were inadvertently misreported. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were actually 0.78 for job demands and 0.83 for job control.

Among the respondents, 377 (3.3%) participants fulfilled the sample inclusion criteria (male = 272, female = 105). As a correction, 72.1% of the samples were men and 67.6% were married. The standard partial regression coefficients (β) of the main effect of caregiver burden on presenteeism in model 1 in the Results section should be 0.235 instead of 0.232.

The authors have modified Tables 1, 2, 3, and 4 and Fig. 1 to reflect new analyses (see electronic supplementary material). Major conclusions of this study remain unchanged.
Table 1

The number of the email invitations to the web-based survey, the respondents to the web-based survey, and the participants who met the inclusion criteria

Age

Email invitations to the web-based survey

Respondents to the web-based survey

Participants (respondents meeting inclusion criteria)

Percentage of respondents meeting inclusion criteria

20–29

4505

813

18

2.2

30–39

8117

2166

69

3.2

40–49

10,997

3425

95

2.8

50–59

9903

3461

120

3.5

60–69

3583

1448

71

4.9

≥ 70

362

157

4

2.5

Table 2

Characteristics of the study participants (n = 377)

 

Mean

(SD)

n

%

Caregivers

 Sex

    

  Male

  

272

72.1

  Female

  

105

27.9

 Age (years)

48.86

(11.32)

  

 Marital status

  Married

  

255

67.6

  Single (including divorced and bereaved)

  

122

32.4

 Education

  Less than vocational school

  

82

21.8

  Vocational school or above

  

295

78.2

 Caregiver burden (J-ZBI-8*)

13.32

(8.04)

  

 Caregiving time (h/day)

2.14

(2.90)

  

 Duration of caregiving (months)

53.39

(46.42)

  

 Type of caregiver

  Primary caregiver

  

127

33.7

  Secondary caregiver

  

250

66.3

 Living arrangements

  Lives with care recipient

  

170

45.1

  Lives separately from care recipient

  

207

54.9

 Night care situation

  Yes

  

241

63.9

  No

  

136

36.1

 Job characteristics (subscales of BJSQ)

  Job demands

8.19

(2.16)

  

  Job control

8.68

(2.12)

  

  Supervisor support

7.09

(2.55)

  

  Coworker support

7.31

(2.30)

  

 Working days per week

4.88

(1.01)

  

 Work productivity (subscales of WPAI-GH)

  Absenteeism

7.92

(17.52)

  

  Presenteeism

35.49

(23.66)

  

  Overall work impairment

40.03

(26.09)

  

Care recipient

 Sex

  Male

  

163

43.2

  Female

  

214

56.8

 Health status

  Yes

  

304

80.6

  No

  

73

19.4

*The short version of the Japanese version of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview

Brief Job Stress Questionnaire

Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire: General Health

Receiving treatment other than for dementia

Table 3

Correlations between caregiver burden, work productivity, care situation, job characteristics, and demographic characteristics (n = 377)

   

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

1

Caregiver burden (J-ZBI-8)

                                  

Work productivity (subscales of WPAI-GH)

2

Absenteeism

0.04

                                    

3

Presenteeism

0.25

**

0.14

**

                                 

4

Overall work impairment

0.22

**

0.54

**

0.90

**

                               

Care situation

                                     

5

Caregiving time (h/day)

0.15

**

− 0.07

 

0.02

 

− 0.02

                              

6

Duration of caregiving (month)

0.00

 

0.16

**

− 0.03

 

0.05

 

0.12

*

                           

7

Type of caregiver

0.21

**

0.20

**

0.00

 

0.09

 

0.26

**

0.08

                          

8

Living arrangements

0.14

**

0.15

**

0.04

 

0.12

*

0.29

**

0.13

**

0.38

**

                       

9

Night care situation

0.18

**

0.18

**

0.13

*

0.19

**

0.06

 

0.12

*

0.14

**

0.07

                      

10

Care recipient sex

− 0.05

 

− 0.18

**

− 0.14

**

− 0.20

**

0.11

*

0.01

 

− 0.08

 

− 0.05

 

− 0.06

                    

11

Care recipient health status

0.06

 

0.13

*

0.08

 

0.13

*

0.11

*

0.02

 

0.14

**

0.11

*

0.02

 

− 0.12

*

                 

Job characteristics

12

Job demands (subscales of BJSQ§)

0.05

 

0.24

**

0.26

**

0.32

**

− 0.05

 

0.05

 

0.04

 

0.07

 

0.21

**

− 0.18

**

0.14

**

               

13

Job control (subscales of BJSQ§)

− 0.03

 

0.04

 

− 0.18

**

− 0.12

*

0.06

 

0.04

 

0.01

 

− 0.03

 

0.09

 

0.07

 

0.01

 

0.01

              

14

Supervisor support (subscales of BJSQ§)

0.00

 

0.32

**

− 0.01

 

0.13

*

− 0.10

 

0.03

 

0.07

 

0.03

 

0.17

**

− 0.04

 

0.13

*

0.19

**

0.29

**

           

15

Coworker support (subscales of BJSQ§)

− 0.03

 

0.26

**

− 0.07

 

0.06

 

− 0.13

*

0.05

 

0.06

 

− 0.03

 

0.27

**

− 0.05

 

0.10

 

0.22

**

0.30

**

0.76

**

         

16

Working days per week

0.02

 

− 0.25

**

0.09

 

− 0.05

 

0.04

 

0.00

 

− 0.09

 

− 0.09

 

0.01

 

− 0.06

 

− 0.07

 

0.10

*

0.04

 

− 0.14

**

− 0.10

        

Demographic characteristics

17

Caregiver sex

− 0.08

 

− 0.01

 

− 0.08

 

− 0.06

 

− 0.06

 

− 0.03

 

0.01

 

− 0.15

**

− 0.05

 

0.28

**

− 0.04

 

0.00

 

0.02

 

0.01

 

0.05

 

− 0.09

      

18

Age (years)

− 0.02

 

− 0.15

**

− 0.15

**

− 0.19

**

0.05

 

0.04

 

0.05

 

− 0.06

 

− 0.16

**

0.09

 

− 0.02

 

− 0.28

**

0.03

 

− 0.15

**

− 0.15

**

− 0.11

*

− 0.18

**

   

19

Marital status

0.00

 

0.05

 

− 0.06

 

− 0.03

 

− 0.19

**

− 0.01

 

− 0.06

 

− 0.21

**

0.06

 

0.03

 

− 0.12

*

− 0.03

 

0.08

 

0.15

**

0.10

 

− 0.12

*

− 0.14

**

0.31

**

 

20

Education

0.02

 

− 0.20

**

0.01

 

− 0.08

 

0.10

*

− 0.12

*

0.01

 

− 0.05

 

− 0.02

 

− 0.04

 

− 0.01

 

0.00

 

0.08

 

− 0.02

 

− 0.03

 

0.16

**

− 0.06

 

− 0.03

 

0.03

Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient was used

*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01

The short version of the Japanese version of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview

Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire: General Health

Receiving treatment other than for dementia

§Brief Job Stress Questionnaire

Table 4

Association between caregiver burden and work productivity (each subscale of WPAI-GH) among employed family caregivers of people with dementia: hierarchical multiple regression analysis results (n = 377)

 

Absenteeism

Presenteeism

Overall work impairment

Variable

Standard partial regression coefficients (β)

Standard partial regression coefficients (β)

Standard partial regression coefficients (β)

 

Model 1

Model 2

Model 3

Model 1

Model 2

Model 3

Model 1

Model 2

Model 3

Demographic characteristics

 Caregiver sexa

0.022

 

− 0.006

 

− 0.020

 

− 0.058

 

− 0.050

 

− 0.040

 

− 0.016

 

− 0.024

 

− 0.023

 

 Age (years)

− 0.159

**

− 0.103

*

− 0.100

 

− 0.118

*

− 0.061

 

− 0.057

 

− 0.157

**

− 0.088

 

− 0.082

 

 Marital statusb

0.127

*

0.045

 

0.041

 

− 0.038

 

− 0.037

 

− 0.041

 

0.028

 

− 0.009

 

− 0.012

 

 Educationc

− 0.180

**

− 0.149

**

− 0.148

**

− 0.001

 

− 0.005

 

0.015

 

− 0.076

 

− 0.056

 

− 0.048

 

Care situation

 Caregiver burden (J-ZBI-8)

− 0.023

 

− 0.011

 

− 0.003

 

0.235

**

0.218

**

0.222

**

0.179

**

0.170

**

0.181

**

 Caregiving time (h/day)

− 0.096

 

− 0.061

 

− 0.059

 

0.000

 

0.008

 

− 0.001

 

− 0.052

 

− 0.030

 

− 0.039

 

 Duration of caregiving (months)

0.118

*

0.115

*

0.116

*

− 0.026

 

− 0.027

 

− 0.022

 

0.033

 

0.030

 

0.033

 

 Type of caregiverd

0.157

**

0.134

**

0.133

**

− 0.067

 

− 0.058

 

− 0.055

 

0.005

 

0.002

 

0.003

 

 Living arrangementse

0.096

 

0.051

 

0.037

 

− 0.008

 

− 0.028

 

− 0.034

 

0.069

 

0.031

 

0.017

 

Night care situationf

0.105

*

0.068

 

0.062

 

0.074

 

0.085

 

0.075

 

0.115

*

0.108

*

0.096

 

 Care recipient sexa

− 0.142

**

− 0.135

**

− 0.123

*

− 0.097

 

− 0.061

 

− 0.073

 

− 0.145

**

− 0.113

*

− 0.114

*

 Care recipient health statusf

0.096

*

0.034

 

0.037

 

0.054

 

0.039

 

0.037

 

0.092

 

0.052

 

0.054

 

Job characteristics

                  

 Job demands (subscales of BJSQ)

  

0.141

**

0.137

**

  

0.218

**

0.195

**

  

0.246

**

0.224

**

 Job control (subscales of BJSQ)

  

0.003

 

− 0.003

   

− 0.151

**

− 0.135

**

  

− 0.114

*

− 0.108

*

 Supervisor support (subscales of BJSQ)

  

0.223

**

0.204

**

  

0.103

 

0.092

   

0.171

*

0.156

*

 Coworker support (subscales of BJSQ)

  

− 0.039

 

− 0.029

   

− 0.168

*

− 0.142

   

− 0.152

*

− 0.127

 

 Working days per week

  

− 0.206

**

− 0.199

**

  

0.036

 

0.021

   

− 0.075

 

− 0.079

 

Interaction (caregiver burden × job characteristics)

 Caregiver burden × job demands

    

− 0.024

     

0.084

     

0.042

 

 Caregiver burden × job control

    

− 0.019

     

− 0.074

     

− 0.078

 

 Caregiver burden × supervisor support

    

0.075

     

0.145

     

0.144

 

 Caregiver burden × coworker support

    

− 0.028

     

− 0.189

*

    

− 0.172

*

 Caregiver burden × working days per week

   

0.089

     

− 0.048

     

0.006

 

R 2

0.192

**

0.289

**

0.298

**

0.111

**

0.188

**

0.212

**

0.148

**

0.225

**

0.242

**

Adjusted R2

0.166

**

0.256

**

0.254

**

0.082

**

0.149

**

0.163

**

0.120

**

0.188

**

0.195

**

ΔR2

0.192

**

0.097

**

0.009

**

0.111

**

0.076

**

0.024

**

0.148

**

0.077

**

0.017

**

*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01

Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire-General Health

‡The short version of the Japanese version of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview

Brief Job Stress Questionnaire

aMale = 0, Female = 1

bMarried = 1, Single (including divorced and bereaved) = 0

cVocational school or above = 1, Less than vocational school = 0

dPrimary caregiver = 1, Secondary caregiver = 0

eLives with care recipient = 1, Lives separately from care recipient = 0

fYes = 1, No = 0

Fig. 1

Simple slope data plots of the caregiver burden × coworker support interaction for presenteeism (a) and for overall work impairment (b)

Notes

Copyright information

© International Society of Behavioral Medicine 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Satoko Fujihara
    • 1
    Email author
  • Akiomi Inoue
    • 2
  • Kazumi Kubota
    • 3
  • Kim Fong Roseline Yong
    • 4
  • Katsunori Kondo
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Public Health, Graduate School of MedicineChiba UniversityChiba CityJapan
  2. 2.Department of Public HealthKitasato University School of MedicineSagamihara CityJapan
  3. 3.Department of BiostatisticsYokohama City University School of MedicineYokohama CityJapan
  4. 4.Department of Public HealthAkita University Graduate School of MedicineAkita CityJapan
  5. 5.Department of Gerontological Evaluation, Center for Gerontology and Social ScienceNational Center for Geriatrics and GerontologyObu CityJapan

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