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Marine Biodiversity

, Volume 49, Issue 5, pp 2199–2207 | Cite as

ICZN Declaration 45: a remedy for the nomenclatural and typification dilemma regarding soft-bodied meiofaunal organisms?

  • André R. S. GarraffoniEmail author
  • Alexander Kieneke
  • Małgorzata Kolicka
  • Paulo H. C. Corgosinho
  • Jefferson Prado
  • Silvio S. Nihei
  • André V. L. Freitas
Review

Abstract

Although ICZN Declaration 45 already shed some light to the issue regarding “typeless species descriptions,” we here explore the assignment of new species-group taxa in the absence of a physical type-specimen in more detail. The focus is on taxonomical studies of so-called soft-bodied meiofaunal organisms, in which a deposition of physical type specimens is frequently either not possible or even not advisable at all, because they are often lost before their formal designation as a name-bearing type. We emphasize some arguments and recommendations concerning photomicrography-based taxonomy on these delicate organisms. Furthermore, we discuss the designation of illustrations as nomenclatural types in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, a practice that is applied for some time now and without any noticeable drawbacks regarding the quality of taxonomic acts.

Keywords

International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Photography-based taxonomy Name-bearing type Onymophoront type specimen 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Many thanks to Daniel Lahr and the Graduate Program in Zoology IB/USP to organize the symposium about typification methods in modern taxonomy on July 2017, which was the starting point of this text. Jacek Kisielewski is kindly acknowledged for providing photomicrographs of Chaetonotus (Hystricochaetonotus) furcatus from his private collection. Many thanks to Brett Christopher Gonzalez and Yvonne Kieneke for editing the English text and Marco Curini-Galletti and anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments.

Financial support

This work was supported by grants from Biota Program/Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP: 2014/23856-0) and Brazilian Research Council (CNPq: 478825/2013-7) for ARSG, National Science Centre in Poland (2015/17/N/NZ8/01568) for MK, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG: CRA-BPV-00547-17) for PHCC, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado (FAPESP: 2015/10788-0, 2016-50387-7) and Brazilian Research Council (CNPq: 403165/2016-4) for SSN, and Biota Program/Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP: 2011/50225-3), Brazilian Research Council (CNPq: fellowship 302585/2011-7, 303834/2015-3, 303615/2015-2), and National Science Foundation (DEB-1256742) for AVLF.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

No animal testing was performed during this study.

Sampling and field studies

All necessary permits for sampling and observational field studies have been obtained from the competent authorities by the authors.

Data availability statement

All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article.

Supplementary material

12526_2019_983_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (739 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 739 kb)

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Copyright information

© Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Biologia Animal, Instituto de BiologiaUniversidade Estadual de CampinasCampinasBrazil
  2. 2.Deutsches Zentrum für Marine BiodiversitätsforschungSenckenberg am MeerWilhelmshavenGermany
  3. 3.Department of Animal Taxonomy and Ecology, Institute of Environmental BiologyAdam Mickiewicz UniversityPoznanPoland
  4. 4.Departamento de Biologia GeralUniversidade Estadual de Montes ClarosMontes ClarosBrazil
  5. 5.Herbário SPInstituto de BotânicaSão PauloBrazil
  6. 6.Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de BiociênciasUniversidade de São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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