Influence of environmental factors on spatial–temporal distribution patterns of dinoflagellate cyst communities in the South China Sea
- 102 Downloads
The spatial–temporal distribution of dinoflagellate cyst (i.e., dinocyst) communities is crucial for understanding the detailed mechanisms of recurrence and spread of harmful algae blooms in marine ecosystems. Here, we employed the newly developed high-throughput sequencing-based metabarcoding to characterize dinocyst communities collected from the South China Sea. Further, we clarified the spatial–temporal distribution patterns and analyzed the correlation between environmental factors and the observed patterns to investigate how they are influenced by environmental factors. Our results showed that the spatial distribution of dinocyst species richness and abundance varied greatly between sampling sites in different seasons. Both redundancy and Pearson analyses showed that the chemical oxygen femand, which could explained 35.0% of the total community variation, had positive correlations with heterotrophic dinocyst richness and negative correlations with autotrophic dinocysts richness. We did not find significant correlations between heavy metals and any features of dinocyst species richness. No environmental factor showed significant effects on dinocyst abundance based on forward selection after excluding colinearity; however, Pearson’s correlation analyses showed that the abundance of heterotrophic dinocysts presented a significant positive correlation with Mn (P < 0.05). Our results showed that the influence of environmental factors on spatial–temporal distribution of dinocyst species could be region- and/or environment-specific. Consequently, we suggest that detailed investigations should be performed to clarify the influence of varied environmental factors on dinocyst community characteristics in different regions and/or seasons.
KeywordsAlgae Dinoflagellate cysts High-throughput sequencing Marine sediment Metabarcoding
This work was partially supported by the 100-Talent Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences to A.Z.
A.Z., H.L. and Y.D. conceived the study. Y.G., Y.D., H.L and A.Z. designed the experiment. Y.G. and H.L. conducted the experiments and analyzed the data. Y.G., Y.D., H.L and A.Z. wrote the manuscript. All authors reviewed and commented on the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
Sampling and field studies
All necessary permits for sampling and observational field studies have been obtained by the authors from the competent authorities and are mentioned in the acknowledgements, if applicable.
- Gowen RJ, Collos Y, Tett P, Scherer C, Bec B, Abadie E, Allen M, O'Brien T (2015) Response of diatom and dinoflagellate lifeforms to reduced phosphorus loading: a case study in the Thau lagoon, France. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 162:45–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2015.03.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Head MJ (1996) Modern Dinofalgelate cysts and their biological affinities. In: Jansonius, McGregory DC (eds) Palynology: principles and applications. American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists Foundation, Dallas, pp 1197–1248Google Scholar
- Kang NS, Jeong HJ, Yoo YD, Yoon EY, Lee KH, Lee K, Kim G (2011) Mixotrophy in the newly described phototrophic dinoflagellate Woloszynskia cincta from western Korean waters: feeding mechanism, prey species and effect of prey concentration. J Eukaryot Microbiol 58(2):152–170. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1550-7408.2011.00531.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kremp A, Elbrachler M, Schweikerl M, Wolny JL, Gottschling M (2005) Woloszynskia halophile (Biecheler) comb. Nov.: a bloom-forming cold-water dinoflagellate co-occurring with Scrippsiella hangoei (Dinophyceae) in the Baltic Sea. J Phycol 41:629–642. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00070.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lepš J, Šmilauer P (2003) Multivariate analysis of ecological data using CANOCO. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Lin S, Wang L, Zheng L, Dong Y, Liu S, Ding S, Ye N, Cao W, Zhuang Z (2014) Current status and future prospect of DNA barcoding in marine biology. Acta Oceanol Sin 36:1–17. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.0253-4193.2014.12.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Matsuoka K, Fukuyo Y (2000) Technical guide for modern dinoflagellate cyst study. WESTPAC-HAB, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, TokyoGoogle Scholar
- Melo F, Nascimento C, Souza DO, Albuquerque RF (2016) Identification of oral bacteria on titanium implant surfaces by 16S rDNA sequencing. Clin Oral Implants Res. https://doi.org/10.1111/clr.12865
- Okamoto OK, Shao L, Hastings JW, Colepicolo P (1999) Acute and chronic effects of toxic metals on viability, encystment and bioluminescence in the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyedra. Comp Biochem Physiol C 123:75–83Google Scholar
- Penna A, Battocchi C, Garcés E, Anglès S, Cucchiari E, Totti C, Kremp A, Satta C, Giacobbe MG, Bravo I (2010) Detection of microalgal resting cysts in European coastal sediments using a PCR-based assay. Deep-Sea Res Part II 57:288–300. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2009.09.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rämä T, Davey ML, Nordén J, Halvorsen R, Blaalid R, Mathiassen GH, Alsos IG, Kauserud H (2016) Fungi sailing the Arctic Ocean: speciose communities in north atlantic driftwood as revealed by high-throughput amplicon sequencing. Microb Ecol 72:295–304. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-016-0778-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Satta CT, Anglès S, Lugliè A, Guillén J, Sechi N, Camp J, Garcés E (2013) Studies on dinoflagellate cyst assemblages in two estuarine Mediterranean bays: a useful tool for the discovery and mapping of harmful algal species. Harmful Algae 24:65–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2013.01.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Satta CT, Anglès S, Garcés E, Sechi N, Pulina S, Padedda BM, Stacca D, Lugliè A (2014) Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages in surface sediments from three shallow Mediterranean lagoons (Sardinia, north western Mediterranean Sea). Estuar Coasts 37:646–663. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12237-013-9705-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sildever S, Andersen TJ, Ribeiro S, Ellegaard M (2015) Influence of surface salinity gradient on dinoflagellate cyst community structure, abundance and morphology in the Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 155:1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2015.01.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tang CQ, Leasi F, Obertegger U, Kieneke A, Barraclough TG, Fontaneto D (2012) The widely used small subunit 18S rDNA molecule greatly underestimates true diversity in biodiversity surveys of the meiofauna. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:16208–16212. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1209160109 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhan A, Hulák M, Sylvester F, Huang X, Adebayo AA, Abbott CL, Adamowicz SJ, Heath DD, Cristescu ME, MacIsaac HJ (2013) High sensitivity of 454 pyrosequencing for detection of rare species in aquatic communities. Methods Ecol Evol 4:558–565. https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.12037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar