Advertisement

Curbing shopping cart abandonment in C2C markets — an uncertainty reduction approach

  • Heng Tang
  • Xiaowan Lin
Research Paper

Abstract

Shopping cart abandonment (SCA) is the phenomenon whereby an online buyer places items into her virtual shopping cart but eventually chooses to abandon payment. This research examines the effect of buyers’ uncertainty perceptions on SCA behaviour, and prescribes the ways to mitigate them. Building on the e-commerce literature, we identify seller uncertainty, description uncertainty, and performance uncertainty as the key antecedents of SCA and explore their relative influences on customers’ intention to finalize the transaction. Drawing upon uncertainty reduction theory (URT) from the communication literature, we theorize critical communication capabilities and discuss their relative effectiveness and boundary conditions in reducing different types of uncertainty perceptions. Survey data were collected from 237 online shoppers who were hesitating to checkout items in their virtual shopping carts. The results provide support for our structural model and hypotheses in general, with a few interesting exceptions. We suggest a plausible explanation of these results and point out their implications for future research. Suggestions for e-commerce practices are discussed.

Keywords

Shopping cart abandonment Seller uncertainty Product uncertainty Uncertainty reduction theory 

JEL classification

L81 Retail and Wholesale Trade e-Commerce, L86 Information and Internet Services Computer Software 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was fully supported by research grant numbered MYRG2017-00020-FBA, University of Macau.

References

  1. Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl, & J. Beckmann (Eds.), Action control: From cognition to behavior (pp. 11–39). Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akerlof, G. A. (1970). The market for "lemons": Quality uncertainty and the market mechanism. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 84(3), 488–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Animesh, A., Ramachandran, V., & Viswanathan, S. (2010). Research note-quality uncertainty and the performance of online sponsored search markets: An empirical investigation. Information Systems Research, 21(1), 190–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Antheunis, M. L., Schouten, A. P., Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2012). Interactive uncertainty reduction strategies and verbal affection in computer-mediated communication. Communication Research, 39(6), 757–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arrow, K. J. (1963). Uncertainty and the welfare economics of medical care. The American Economic Review, 941–973.Google Scholar
  6. Baek, H., Ahn, J., & Choi, Y. (2012). Helpfulness of online consumer reviews: Readers' objectives and review cues. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 17(2), 99–126.  https://doi.org/10.2753/JEC1086-4415170204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. BCG (2016). Americans' Move to Online Shopping Is Plateauing. Boston Consulting Group (BCG). Retrieved from http://www.marketwired.com/press-release/americans-move-online-shopping-is-plateauing-vast-majority-consumers-say-they-wont-significantly-2133290.htm
  8. Berger, C. R. (1979). Beyond initial interaction: Uncertainty, understanding, and the development of interpersonal relationships. Language and Social Psychology, 122–144.Google Scholar
  9. Berger, C. R. (1995). Inscrutable goals, uncertain plans, and the production of communicative action. In C. R. Berger & M. Burgoon (Eds.), Communication and social influence processes (pp. 1–28). East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Berger, C. R., & Calabrese, R. J. (1975). Some explorations in initial interaction and beyond: Toward a developmental theory of interpersonal communication. Human Communication Research, 1(2), 99–112.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1975.tb00258.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bickart, B., & Schindler, R. M. (2001). Internet forums as influential sources of consumer information. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 15(3), 31–40.  https://doi.org/10.1002/dir.1014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bloom, P. N. (1989). A decision model for prioritizing and addressing consumer information problems. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 8, 161–180.Google Scholar
  13. Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables. New York: John Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bone, P. F. (1995). Word-of-mouth effects on short-term and long-term product judgments. Journal of Business Research, 32(3), 213–223.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-2963(94)00047-I.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Boone, L. E., & Kurtz, D. L. (2013). Contemporary marketing (17 ed.) South-western Cengage learning.Google Scholar
  16. Bratman, M. (1987). Intention, plans, and practical reason. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Briiggen, E., Wetzels, M., de Ruyter, K., & Schillewaert, N. (2011). Individual differences in motivation to participate in online panels. International Journal of Market Research, 53(3), 369–390.  https://doi.org/10.2501/IJMR-53-3-369-390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carmines, E. G., & Zeller, R. A. (1979). Reliability and validity assessment (Vol. 17). Beverly Hills: Sage publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Charlton, G. (2007). Why do customers abandon the checkout process? Retrieved from https://econsultancy.com/why-do-customers-abandon-the-checkout-process/.
  20. Chaudhuri, A. (1998). Product class effects on perceived risk: The role of emotion. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 15(2), 157–168.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8116(97)00039-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Che, T., Peng, Z., Lim, K. H., & Hua, Z. (2015). Antecedents of consumers’ intention to revisit an online group-buying website: A transaction cost perspective. Information & Management, 52(5), 588–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chen, Z., Zhu, J., & Zhou, M. (2015). How does a servant leader fuel the service fire? A multilevel model of servant leadership, individual self identity, group competition climate, and customer service performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(2), 511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cheung, C. M. K., & Thadani, D. R. (2012). The impact of electronic word-of-mouth communication: A literature analysis and integrative model. Decision Support Systems, 54(1), 461–470.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dss.2012.06.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cheung, M. Y., Luo, C., Sia, C. L., & Chen, H. (2009). Credibility of electronic word-of-mouth: Informational and normative determinants of on-line consumer recommendations. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 13(4), 9–38.  https://doi.org/10.2753/JEC1086-4415130402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chiles, T. H., & McMackin, J. F. (1996). Integrating variable risk preferences, trust, and transaction cost economics. The Academy of Management Review, 21(1), 73–99.  https://doi.org/10.2307/258630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chin, W. W., Marcolin, B. L., & Newsted, P. R. (2003). A partial least squares latent variable modeling approach for measuring interaction effects: Results from a Monte Carlo simulation study and an electronic-mail emotion/adoption study. Information Systems Research, 14(2), 189–217.  https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.14.2.189.16018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Choudhury, V., & Karahanna, E. (2008). The relative advantage of electronic channels: A multidimensional view. MIS Quarterly, 32(1), 179–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Constantinides, E. (2004). Influencing the online consumer's behavior: The web experience. Internet Research Electronic Networking Applications and Policy, 14(2), 111–126.  https://doi.org/10.1108/10662240410530835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Crompton, J. L., & Ankomah, P. K. (1993). Choice set propositions in destination decisions. Annals of Tourism Research, 20(3), 461–476.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(93)90003-L.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. De Vaus, D. (2013). Surveys in social research (5th ed.) Routledge.Google Scholar
  31. Dellarocas, C. (2003). The digitization of word of mouth: Promise and challenges of online feedback mechanisms. Management Science, 49(10), 1407–1424.  https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.49.10.1407.17308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dennis, A. R., Fuller, R. M., & Valacich, J. S. (2008). Media, tasks, and communication processes: A theory of media synchronicity. MIS Quarterly, 32(3), 575–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dijkstra, T. K. (2010). Latent variables and indices: Herman Wold's basic design and partial least squares. In V. Esposito Vinzi, W.W. Chin, J. Henseler & H. Wang (Eds.), Handbook of partial least squares: Concepts, methods and applications (Springer Handbooks of Computational Statistics Series, vol. II) (pp. 23–46). Heidelberg, Dordrecht, London, New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  34. Dimoka, A., Hong, Y., & Pavlou, P. a. (2012). On product uncertainty in online markets: Theory and evidence. MIS Quarterly, 36(2), 395–A315.Google Scholar
  35. Doob, L. W. (1990). Hesitation: Impulsivity and reflection (Contributions in psychology, Vol. 15) Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  36. Egeln, L. S., & Joseph, J. A. (2012). Shopping cart abandonment in online shopping. Atlantic Marketing Journal, 1(1), 1.Google Scholar
  37. eMarketer (2016). Three-quarters of the World's shopping carts are abandoned - retailers are looking at ways to overcome shopping cart abandonment. eMarketer.Google Scholar
  38. Engel, J., Miniard, P., & Blackwell, R. (2006). Consumer behavior (10th ed.). Mason: Thomson South-Western.Google Scholar
  39. Fang, Y. L., Qureshi, I., Sun, H. S., McCole, P., Ramsey, E., & Lim, K. H. (2014). Trust, satisfaction, and online repurchase intention: The moderating role of perceived effectiveness of E-commerce institutional mechanisms. MIS Quarterly, 38(2), 407–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fenech, T. (2002). “Antecedents to web cart abandonment”, In Shaw, R. N.; Adam, S.; and McDonald, H., eds., Proceedings of the Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, Melbourne: Interactive Marketing, 3351-3357.Google Scholar
  41. Fernandes, B. (2012). Abandoning the online shopping cart before finalizing the purchase: Influences form attitudes, subjective norms and internet experience. Lisbon: Universidade Católica Portuguesa.Google Scholar
  42. Flanagin, A. J. (2007). Commercial markets as communication markets: Uncertainty reduction through mediated information exchange in online auctions. New Media & Society, 9(3), 401–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3151312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ganes, S. (2016). Combat Shopping Cart Abandonment - Essential Strategies to Convert Lost Customers. Usabilla. Retrieved from: https://go.usabilla.com/hubfs/sca_ebook_update.pdf?t=1512647950471.
  45. Gefen, D., & Straub, D. W. (2004). Consumer trust in B2C e-commerce and the importance of social presence: Experiments in e-products and e-services. Omega, 32(6), 407–424.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omega.2004.01.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gefen, D., Karahanna, E., & Straub, D. (2003). Trust and TAM in online shopping: An integrated model. MIS Quarterly, 27, 51–90.  https://doi.org/10.2307/30036519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ghose, A. (2009). Internet exchanges for used goods: An empirical analysis of trade patterns and adverse selection. MIS Quarterly, 33(2), 263–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ghose, A., & Ipeirotis, P. G. (2011). Estimating the helpfulness and economic impact of product reviews: Mining text and reviewer characteristics. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 23(10), 1498–1512.  https://doi.org/10.1109/tkde.2010.188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gibbs, J. L., Ellison, N. B., & Lai, C. H. (2010). First comes love, then comes Google: An investigation of uncertainty reduction strategies and self-disclosure in online dating. Communication Research, 38(1), 70–100.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0093650210377091.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gleicher, F., Boninger, D. S., Strathman, A., Armor, D., Hetts, J., & Ahn, M. (1995). With an eye toward the future: The impact of counterfactual thinking on affect, attitudes, and behavior. What might have been: The social psychology of counterfactual thinking, 283–304.Google Scholar
  51. Heath, R. L., & Bryant, J. (2013). Human communication theory and research: Concepts, contexts, and challenges (2nd ed.) Routledge.Google Scholar
  52. Herr, P. M., Kardes, F. R., & Kim, J. (1991). Effects of word-of-mouth and product-attribute information on persuasion: An accessibility-Diagnosticity perspective. Journal of Consumer Research, 17(4), 454–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hoch, S. J. (1985). Counterfactual reasoning and accuracy in predicting personal events. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 11(4), 719.Google Scholar
  54. Hoch, S. J., & Ha, Y.-W. (1986). Consumer learning: Advertising and the ambiguity of product experience. Journal of Consumer Research, 13(2), 221–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hofstede, G. (1984). Culture's consequences: International differences in work-related values (Vol. 5) Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  56. Hong, Y., & Pavlou, P. A. (2014). Product fit uncertainty in online markets: Nature, effects, and antecedents. Information Systems Research, 25(2), 328–344.  https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.2014.0520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Jiang, Z., & Benbasat, I. (2004). Virtual product experience: Effects of visual and functional control of products on perceived diagnosticity and flow in electronic shopping. Journal of Management Information Systems, 21(3), 111–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jiang, Z., Chan, J., Tan, B. C., & Chua, W. S. (2010). Effects of interactivity on website involvement and purchase intention. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 11(1), 34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Johnson, M. K., & Sherman, S. J. (1990). Constructing and reconstructing the past and the future in the present. In Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior, Vol. 2. (pp. 482–526). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  60. Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 47(2), 263–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kalra, A., & Li, S. (2008). Signaling quality through specialization. Marketing Science, 27(2), 168–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Karimi, S., Papamichail, K. N., & Holland, C. P. (2015). The effect of prior knowledge and decision-making style on the online purchase decision-making process: A typology of consumer shopping behaviour. Decision Support Systems, 77(Supplement C), 137–147.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dss.2015.06.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kemp, E., Bui, M., & Chapa, S. (2012). The role of advertising in consumer emotion management. International Journal of Advertising, 31(2), 339–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kempf, D. S., & Smith, R. E. (1998). Consumer processing of product trial and the influence of prior advertising: A structural modeling approach. Journal of Marketing Research, 35, 325–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kim, Y., & Krishnan, R. (2015). On product-level uncertainty and online purchase behavior: An empirical analysis. Management Science, 61(10), 2449–2467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kim, D. J., Ferrin, D. L., & Rao, H. R. (2008). A trust-based consumer decision-making model in electronic commerce: The role of trust, perceived risk, and their antecedents. Decision Support Systems, 44(2), 544–564.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dss.2007.07.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kirmani, A., & Rao, A. R. (2000). No pain, no gain: A critical review of the literature on signaling unobservable product quality. Journal of Marketing, 64(2), 66–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Knight, F. H. (1921). Risk, uncertainty and profit. In (pp. 20) New York: Hart, Schaffner and Marx.Google Scholar
  69. Koppius, O. R., Van Heck, E., & Wolters, M. J. (2004). The importance of product representation online: Empirical results and implications for electronic markets. Decision Support Systems, 38(2), 161–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Koufaris, M. (2002). Applying the technology acceptance model and flow theory to online consumer behavior. Information Systems, 13, 205–223.Google Scholar
  71. Kukar-Kinney, M., & Close, A. G. (2010). The determinants of consumers’ online shopping cart abandonment. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 38(2), 240–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Laros, F. J. M., & Steenkamp, J. B. E. M. (2005). Emotions in consumer behavior: A hierarchical approach. Journal of Business Research, 58(10), 1437–1445.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2003.09.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Laudon, K. C., & Traver, C. (2016). E-commerce 2016: Business, Technology, Society (12th ed.) Pearson Higher Ed.Google Scholar
  74. Lim, N. (2003). Consumers’ perceived risk: Sources versus consequences. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 2(3), 216–228.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1567-4223(03)00025-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lim, K. H., Leung, K., Sia, C. L., & Lee, M. K. (2004). Is eCommerce boundary-less? Effects of individualism–collectivism and uncertainty avoidance on internet shopping. Journal of International Business Studies, 35(6), 545–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lind, E. A., & van den Bos, K. (2002). When fairness works: Toward a general theory of uncertainty management. Research in Organizational Behavior, 24(24), 181–223.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-3085(02)24006-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ling, S. C., Chuan, L., Bernard, T., Yian, C., Yani, S., & Huaping, C. (2007). Getting to know websites through uncertainty reduction strategies: Which strategies are used more, and which are better? An empirical study of first-time visitors. In Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing, 2007. WiCom 2007. International Conference on, (pp. 3845–3848): IEEE.Google Scholar
  78. Liu, Y. (2003). Developing a scale to measure the interactivity of websites. Journal of Advertising Research, 43(2), 207–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Liu, C., & Arnett, K. P. (2000). Exploring the factors associated with web site success in the context of electronic commerce. Information & Management, 38(1), 23–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7206(00)00049-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Luo, J., Ba, S., & Han, Z. (2012). The effectiveness of online shopping characteristics and well-designed websites on satisfaction. MIS Quarterly, 36(4), 1131–1144.Google Scholar
  81. MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2011). Construct measurement and validation procedures in MIS and behavioral research: Integrating new and existing techniques. MIS Quarterly, 35(2), 293–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Maister, D. H. (1985). The Psychology of Waiting Lines. In J. A. Czepiel, M. R. Solomon, & C. F. Surprenant (eds.), The Service Encounter (pp. 113–23). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  83. Metcalf, L. E., Frear, C. R., & Krishnan, R. (1992). Buyer-seller relationships: An application of the IMP interaction model. European Journal of Marketing, 26(2), 27–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Mitchell, V.-W. (1999). Consumer perceived risk: Conceptualisations and models. European Journal of Marketing, 33(1/2), 163–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Money, R. B., & Crotts, J. C. (2003). The effect of uncertainty avoidance on information search, planning, and purchases of international travel vacations. Tourism Management, 24(2), 191–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Murray, K. B. (1991). A test of services marketing theory: Consumer information acquisition activities. Journal of Marketing, 55(1), 10–25.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1252200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Nelson, P. (1974). Advertising as information. Journal of Political Economy, 82(4), 729–754.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1837143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Nicholls, C. (2014). The Science of Shopping Cart Abandonment. The Conversion Academy for SeeWhy. Retrieved from: https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/7725069/the-science-of-shopping-cart-abandonment-shoporg.
  89. Ou, C. X., & Davison, R. M. (2009). Why eBay lost to TaoBao in China: The Glocal advantage. Communications of the ACM, 52(1), 145–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ou, C. X., Pavlou, P. A., & Davison, R. M. (2014). Swift Guanxi in online marketplaces: The role of computer-mediated communication technologies. MIS Quarterly, 38(1), 209–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Park, C., & Lee, T. M. (2009). Information direction, website reputation and eWOM effect: A moderating role of product type. Journal of Business Research, 62(1), 61–67.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2007.11.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Park, J., Lennon, S. J., & Stoel, L. (2005). On-line product presentation: Effects on mood, perceived risk, and purchase intention. Psychology and Marketing, 22(9), 695–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Park, D. H., Lee, J., & Han, I. (2007). The effect of on-line consumer reviews on consumer purchasing intention: The moderating role of involvement. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 11(4), 125–148.  https://doi.org/10.2753/Jec1086-4415110405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pavlou, P. A., & Fygenson, M. (2006). Understanding and predicting electronic commerce adoption: An extension of the theory of planned behavior. MIS Quarterly, 30(1), 115–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Pavlou, P. A., & Gefen, D. (2004). Building effective online marketplaces with institution based trust. Information Systems Research, 15(1), 37–59.  https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.1040.0015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Pavlou, P. A., Liang, H., & Xue, Y. (2007). Understanding and mitigating uncertainty in online exchange relationships: A principle - agent perspective. MIS Quarterly, 31(1), 105–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Peck, J., & Childers, T. L. (2003). To have and to hold: The influence of haptic information on product judgments. Journal of Marketing, 67(2), 35–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Petter, S., Straub, D., & Rai, A. (2007). Specifying formative constructs in information systems research. MIS Quarterly, 31(4), 623–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Puccinelli, N. M., Goodstein, R. C., Grewal, D., Price, R., Raghubir, P., & Stewart, D. (2009). Customer experience management in retailing: Understanding the buying process. Journal of Retailing, 85(1), 15–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Quester, P., Neal, C., Pettigrew, S., Grimmer, M., Davis, T., & Hawkins, D. (2007). Consumer behaviour: Implications for marketing strategy (5th ed.) McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  102. Rajamma, R. K., Paswan, A. K., & Hossain, M. M. (2009). Why do shoppers abandon shopping cart? Perceived waiting time, risk, and transaction inconvenience. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 18(3), 188–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ranganathan, C., & Ganapathy, S. (2002). Key dimensions of business-to-consumer web sites. Information & Management, 39(6), 457–465.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7206(01)00112-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Reichheld, F. F., & Schefter, P. (2000). E-loyalty - your secret weapon on the web. Harvard Business Review, 78(4), 105–113.Google Scholar
  105. Rice, S. C. (2012). Reputation and uncertainty in online markets: An experimental study. Information Systems Research, 23(2), 436–452.  https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.1110.0362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sackett, P. R., & Larson Jr., J. R. (1990). Research strategies and tactics in industrial and organizational psychology. In M. D. Dunnette & L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 1, 2nd ed.). Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  107. Shannon, C. E., & Weaver, W. (2015). The mathematical theory of communication (1949). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  108. Sheth, J. N. (1972). The future of buyer behavior theory. In Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference of the Association for Consumer Research (pp. 562–575). Association for Consumer Research College Park.Google Scholar
  109. Sheth, J. N. (1976). Buyer-seller interaction: A conceptual framework. Advances in Consumer Research, 3(1), 382–386.Google Scholar
  110. Smith, A. K., & Bolton, R. N. (2002). The effect of customers’ emotional responses to service failures on their recovery effort evaluations and satisfaction judgments. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 30(1), 5–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Smith, M. F., & Carsky, M. L. (1996). Grocery shopping behavior a comparison of involved and uninvolved consumers. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 3(2), 73–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Solomon, M. R., Surprenant, C., Czepiel, J. A., & Gutman, E. G. (1985). A role theory perspective on dyadic interactions: The service encounter. The Journal of Marketing, 49(1), 99–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Spiggle, S., & Sewall, M. A. (1987). A choice sets model of retail selection. Journal of Marketing, 51(2), 97–111.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1251132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Suh, K. S., & Lee, Y. E. (2005). The effects of virtual reality on consumer learning: An empirical investigation. MIS Quarterly, 29(4), 673–697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Tam, K. Y., & Ho, S. Y. (2005). Web personalization as a persuasion strategy: An elaboration likelihood model perspective. Information Systems Research, 16(3), 271–291.  https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.1050.0058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Teo, H. H., Oh, L. B., Liu, C. H., & Wei, K. K. (2003). An empirical study of the effects of interactivity on web user attitude. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 58(3), 281–305.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1071-5819(03)00008-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Teo, T. S., Wang, P., & Leong, C. H. (2004). Understanding online shopping behaviour using a transaction cost economics approach. International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising, 1(1), 62–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Venkatesh, V., Thong, J. Y. L., Chan, F. K. Y., & Hu, P. J. H. (2016). Managing Citizens' uncertainty in E-government services: The mediating and moderating roles of transparency and trust. Information Systems Research, 27(1), 87–111.  https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.2015.0612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Vinzi, V. E., Chin, W. W., Henseler, J., & Wang, H. (2010). Perspectives on partial least squares. In V. E. Vinzi, W. W. Chin, J. Henseler, & H. Wang (Eds.), Handbook of partial least squares (pp. 1–20) Springer.Google Scholar
  120. Walther, J. B. (1992). Interpersonal effects in computer-mediated interaction a relational perspective. Communication Research, 19(1), 52–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Walther, J. B., & Jang, J. W. (2012). Communication processes in participatory websites. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 18(1), 2–15.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2012.01592.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Walther, J. B., & Parks, M. R. (2002). Cues filtered out, cues filtered. In M. L. Knapp, & J. A. Daly (Eds.), Handbook of interpersonal communication (3rd ed.), (pp. 529–563), Computer-mediated communication and relationships). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  123. Wanous, J. P., Reichers, A. E., & Hudy, M. J. (1997). Overall job satisfaction: How good are single-item measures? Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(2), 247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Weathers, D., Sharma, S., & Wood, S. L. (2007). Effects of online communication practices on consumer perceptions of performance uncertainty for search and experience goods. Journal of Retailing, 83(4), 393–401.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretai.2007.03.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. West, R. L., & Turner, L. H. (2006). Introducing communication theory: Analysis and application. New York: McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages.Google Scholar
  126. Wu, J., Wu, Y., Sun, J., & Yang, Z. (2013). User reviews and uncertainty assessment: A two stage model of consumers' willingness-to-pay in online markets. Decision Support Systems, 55(1), 175–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Xu, Q. (2014). Should I trust him? The effects of reviewer profile characteristics on eWOM credibility. Computers in Human Behavior, 33, 136–144.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.01.027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Zack, M. H. (2001). If managing knowledge is the solution, then what's the problem. In Y. Malhotra (Ed.), Knowledge management and business model innovation (pp. 16–36). Hershey, PA, USA: Idea Group Publishing.Google Scholar
  129. Zaichkowsky, J. L. (1994). The personal involvement inventory: Reduction, revision, and application to advertising. Journal of Advertising, 23(4), 59–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Zeithaml, V. A., & Bitner, M. J. (1996). Services marketing. New York: McGrawHill.Google Scholar
  131. Zhang, X., Luo, J., & Li, Q. (2012). Do different reputation systems provide consistent signals of seller quality: A canonical correlation investigation of Chinese C2C marketplaces. [journal article]. Electronic Markets, 22(3), 155–168.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12525-012-0092-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Zhou, Z., Wu, J. P., Zhang, Q., & Xu, S. (2013). Transforming visitors into members in online brand communities: Evidence from China. Journal of Business Research, 66(12), 2438–2443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Applied Informatics at University of Leipzig 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Business AdministrationUniversity of MacauMacauChina

Personalised recommendations