Dense DSM and DTM Point Cloud Generation Using CARTOSAT-2E Satellite Images for High-Resolution Applications
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The primary objective of this study is to provide a methodology to generate a dense point cloud of digital surface model (DSM) and digital terrain model (DTM) from 0.6 m GSD stereo images acquired by CARTOSAT-2E satellite of the Indian Space Research Organization. These products are required for many high-resolution applications such as mapping of watersheds and watercourses; river flood modeling; analysis of flood depth, landslide, forest structure, and individual trees; design of highway and canal alignment. The proposed method consists of several processes such as orienting the stereo images, DEM point cloud extraction using the semi-global matching, and DSM to DTM filtering. The stereo model is built by performing aero triangulation and block adjustment using the ground control points. The semi-global matching algorithm is used on the epipolar images to generate the DSM in the form of dense point cloud corresponding to one height point for each pixel. The planimetric and height accuracies are evaluated using orthoimages and DSM and found to be within 3-pixel (~ 2 m) range. A method for extracting DTM by ground point filtering, to discriminate the probable ground points and the non-ground points, is provided by using discrete cosine transformation interpolation. This robust method uses a weight function to differentiate the noise points from the ground points. The overall classification efficiency kappa (κ) value averages at 0.92 for ground point classification/DTM extraction. The results of benchmarking of the GPS-aided GEO augmented navigation GPS receiver by operating it over IGS station, in static mode for collecting the checkpoints, also are presented.
KeywordsHigh-resolution satellite Dense point cloud Semi-global matching Digital surface model Digital terrain model Discrete cosine transform GAGAN
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