Advertisement

Determination of Hydrothermal Alteration Zones Using Remote Sensing Methods in Tirka Area, Toroud, NE Iran

  • Mina Zamyad
  • Peyman AfzalEmail author
  • Mohsen Pourkermani
  • Reza Nouri
  • Mohammad Reza Jafari
Research Article
  • 18 Downloads

Abstract

The aim of current study is the identification of hydrothermal alteration by remote sensing methods in Tirka area, NE Iran. The field of study with area about 13 km2 (scale: 1:20,000) is part of the Toroud–Chahshirin magmatic belt, which is located in central Iran structural zone. Hydrothermal alteration zones are interpreted based on Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer remote sensing data. In the first stage, atmospheric, topographic and geometric corrections were performed on satellite imagery. Then, different image interpretation techniques consisting of band ratio, principal component analysis, minimum noise fraction, least squares fitting (LS-Fit), spectral angle mapper and spectral feature fitting (SFF) methods were used. Therefore, VNIR bands for iron oxide alteration, SWIR bands for argillic, phyllic and propylitic alterations, and TIR bands for silicification were applied. The results showed iron oxide and propylitic alterations occurred at the SW and the argillic and phyllic alteration zones were existed in the northern and SE parts of the area. Silicification happened sporadically in the region. Lineaments were processed by false color composite, high-pass filters and hill-shade digital elevation model methods, and two NW–SE and NE–SW major trends were revealed. Field observation and laboratory analysis were used for accuracy of satellite studies. Finally, alteration and lineament maps were integrated for the recognition of high-potential mineralization. Petrographic studies showed that SFF and LS-Fit methods are more reliable than other techniques for the determination of hydrothermal alterations.

Keywords

Remote sensing ASTER Lineament Hydrothermal alteration Copper Toroud 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to thank Pars Asia Mine Company and Mr. Badakhshan who provided us with the necessary information for this realization.

References

  1. Abarca, M. A. A. (2006). Lineament extraction from digital terrain models. Master of Science dissertation, Addis Ababa University, (pp 1–81).Google Scholar
  2. Abrams, M. (2000). The advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER). Data products for the high spatial resolution imager on NASA Terra Platform. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 21, 847–859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmadirouhani, R., Rahimi, B., Karimpour, M. H., Malekzadeh Shafaroudi, A., Pour, A. B., & Pradhan, B. (2018). Integration of SPOT-5 and ASTER satellite data for structural tracing and hydrothermal alteration mineral mapping: Implications for Cu–Au prospecting. International Journal of Image and Data Fusion, 9, 237–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aramesh Asl, R., Afzal, P., Adib, A., & Yasrebi, A. B. (2015). Application of multifractal modeling for the identification of alteration zones and major faults based on ETM+ multispectral data. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 8, 2997–3006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Azizi, H., Tarverdi, M. A., & Akbarpour, A. (2010). Extraction of hydrothermal alterations from ASTER SWIR data from east Zanjan, northern Iran. Advances in Space Research, 46, 99–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beiranvand Pour, A., & Hashim, M. (2012a). The application of ASTER remote sensing data to porphyry copper and epithermal gold deposits. Ore Geology Reviews, 44, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beiranvand Pour, A., & Hashim, M. (2012b). Identifying areas of high economic-potential copper mineralization using ASTER data in the Urumieh–Dokhtar Volcanic Belt, Iran. Advances in Space Research, 49(4), 753–769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clark, R. N., King, T. V. V., Kleijwa, M., Swayze, G. A., & Vergon, N. (1990). High spectral resolution reflectance spectroscopy of minerals. Journal of Geophysical Research, 95(B8), 12653–12680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clark, R. N., & Roush, T. L. (1984). Reflectance spectroscopy: quantitative analysis techniques for remote Sensing Applications. Journal of Geophysical Research, 89, 6329–6340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clark, R. N., Swayze, G. A., Gallagher, A., (1992). Mapping the mineralogy and lithology of canyonlands, Utah with Imaging spectrometer data and the multiple spectral feature mapping algorithm. In Summaries of the Third Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop (pp 11–13).Google Scholar
  11. Clark, R. N., Swayze, G. A., Gallagher, A., Gorelick, N., Kruse, F. A. (1991). Mapping with imaging spectrometer data using the complete band shape least-squares algorithm simultaneously fit to multiple spectral features from multiple materials. In Proceeding, 3rdAirborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) Workshop (pp 2–3).Google Scholar
  12. Crosta, A. P., DE Souza Filho, C. R., Azevedo, F., & Brodie, C. (2003). Targeting key alteration minerals in epithermal deposit in Patagonia, Argentina, using ASTER imagery and principal component analysis. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 10(21), 4233–4240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crosta, A. P., Moore, J. M., (1989). Enhancement of landsat thematic mapper imagery for residual soil mapping in SW Minais Gerais State, Brazil: A prospecting case history in Greenstone Belt Terrain. In Proceedings of the Seventh Thematic Conference on Remote Sensing for Exploration Geology.Google Scholar
  14. Fakhari, S., Jafarirad, A., Afzal, P., & Lotfi, M. (2019). Delineation of hydrothermal alteration zones for porphyry systems utilizing ASTER data in Jebal barez area, SE Iran. Iranian Journal of Earth Sciences, 11, 80–92.Google Scholar
  15. Fard, M., Rastad, E., & Ghaderi, M. (2006). Epithermal Gold and Base Metal mineralization at Gandy Deposit, North of central Iran and the Role of Rhyolitic Intrusions. Journal of Sciences, Islamic Republic of Iran, 17, 327–335.Google Scholar
  16. Fujisada, H. (1995). Design and performance of ASTER instrument. In J. B. Breckinridge (Ed.), Advanced and Next-Generation Satellites (Vol. 2583, pp. 16–25). Bellingham, WA: International Society for Optics and Photonics.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gabr, S., Ghulam, A., & Kusky, T. (2010). Detecting areas of high-potential gold mineralization using ASTER data. Ore Geology Reviews, 38, 59–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ghodratabadi, S., & Feizi, F. (2015). Identification of groundwater potential zones in Moalleman, Iran by remote sensing and index overlay technique in GIS. Iranian Journal of Earth Sciences, 7, 142–152.Google Scholar
  19. Ghorbani, M. (2013). The economic geology of Iran: Mineral deposits and natural resource. Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Honarmand, M., Ranjbar, H., & Shahabpour, J. (2011). Application of spectral analysis in mapping hydrothermal alteration of the northwestern Part of the Kerman Cenozoic Magmatic Arc, Iran. University of Tehran, Journal of Sciences, Islamic Republic of Iran, 22(3), 221–238.Google Scholar
  21. Inzana, J., Kusky, T., Higgs, G., & Tucker, R. (2003). Supervised classifications of Landsat TM band ratio images and Landsat TM band ratio image with radar for geological interpretations of central Madagascar. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 37, 59–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Khademi, M., Shahriari, S., (2007). Deformation style at the south of the Torud fault, south of Damghan. In The 25 Symposium of geosciences, geological survey and mineral explorations of Iran.Google Scholar
  23. Khaleghi, M., & Ranjbar, H. (2011). Alteration mapping for exploration of porphyry copper mineralization in the Sarduiyeh Area, Kerman Province, Iran, using ASTER SWIR Data. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(8), 61–69.Google Scholar
  24. Kujjo, C.P., (2010). Application of remote sensing for gold exploration in the Nuba Mountains, Sudan. Bowling Green State University, Master of Science Thesis.Google Scholar
  25. Loughlin, W. P. (1991). Principal component analysis for alteration mapping. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 57(9), 1163–1169.Google Scholar
  26. Mahanta, P., & Maiti, S. (2018). Regional scale demarcation of alteration zone using ASTER imageries in South Purulia Shear Zone, East India: Implication for mineral exploration in vegetated regions. Ore Geology Reviews, 102, 846–861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mars, J. C., & Rowan, L. C. (2006). Regional mapping of phyllic and argillic altered rock in the Zagros magmatic arc, Iran, using advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) data and logical operator algorithms. Geosphere, 2, 161–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Moghadam, H. S., Li, X. H., Santos, J. F., Stern, R. J., Griffin, W. L., Ghorbani, G., et al. (2017). Neoproterozoic magmatic flare-up along the N. margin of Gondwana: The Taknar complex, NE Iran. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 474, 83–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Moghadam, H. S., Li, X. H., Stern, R. J., Santos, J. F., Ghorbani, G., & Pourmohsen, M. (2016). Age and nature of 560–520 Ma calc-alkaline granitoids of Biarjmand, northeast Iran: Insights into Cadomian arc magmatism in northern Gondwana. International Geology Review, 58(12), 1492–1509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Moghtaderi, A., Moore, F., & Mohammadzadeh, A. (2007). The application of advanced space-borne thermal emission and reflection (ASTER) radiometer data in the detection of alteration in the Chadormalu paleocrater, Bafq region, Central Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 30, 238–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nezafati, N., (2015). Mineral resources of Iran (an overview). In Internationales alumni-symposium.Google Scholar
  32. Noori, L., Beiranvandpour, A., Askari, G., Taghipour, N., Pradhan, B., Lee, C. W., et al. (2019). Comparison of different algorithms to map hydrothermal alteration zones using ASTER remote sensing data for polymetallic vein-type ore exploration: Toroud–Chahshirin magmatic belt (TCMB) north Iran. Remote Sensing, 11(5), 495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nouri, R., Jafari, M. R., Arian, M., Feizi, F., & Afzal, P. (2013). Prospection for Copper mineralization with contribution of remote sensing, geochemical and mineralographical data in Abhar 1:100,000 sheet. NW Iran. Archives of Mining Sciences, 58(4), 1071–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Oskouei, M., & Busch, W. (2012). A selective combined classification algorithm for mapping alterations on ASTER data. Applied Geomatics, 4, 47–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Poormirzaee, R., & Mohammady Oskouei, M. (2010). Use of spectral analysis for detection of alterations in ETM data, Yazd, Iran. Applied Geomatics, 2, 147–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rajendran, S., Khirbash, S. A., Pracejus, B., Nasir, S., Al-Abri, A. H., Kusky, T. M., et al. (2012). ASTER detection of chromite bearing mineralized zones in Semail Ophiolite Massifs of the northern Oman Mountains: Exploration strategy. Ore Geology Reviews, 44, 121–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rastad, E., Tajeddin, H., Rashidnejad-Omran, N., & Babakhani, A. (2000). Genesis and gold (copper) potential in Darestan-Baghou mining area, Iran. Geoscience Journal, 36, 60–79. (in Persian).Google Scholar
  38. Rowan, L. C., & Mars, J. C. (2003). Lithologic mapping in the Mountain Pass, California area using advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) data. Remote sensing of Environment, 84(3), 350–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ruiz-Armenta, J. R., & Prol-Ledesma, R. M. (1998). Techniques for enhancing the spectral response of hydrothermal alteration minerals in Thematic Mapper images of central Mexico. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19(10), 1981–2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sabins, F. F. (1999). Remote sensing for mineral exploration. Ore Geology Reviews, 14, 157–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sarp, G. (2005). Lineament analysis from satellite images, North-West of Ankara. Master of Science Dissertation. School of Natural and Applied Science of Middle East Technical University.Google Scholar
  42. Shamanian, G. H., Hedenquist, J. W., Hattori, K., & Hassanzadeh, J. (2004). Epithermal precious-and base-metal mineralization in the Eocene arc of Torud-Chah Shirin mountain range: Gandy and Abolhassani districts, Semnan, northern Iran. Mineral exploration and sustainable development (pp. 1241–1244). Rotterdam, Netherlands: Millpress.Google Scholar
  43. Shippert, P., (1992). Introduction to Hyperspectral Image Analysis, Ph.D. thesis, Geography Department, University of Auckland, New Zealand, p.504.Google Scholar
  44. Weldemariam, A.F., (2009). Mapping Hydrothermally altered rocks and lineament analysis through digital enhancement of ASTER data case study: Kemashi area, Western Ethiopia. Master of Science dissertation, Addis Ababa University.Google Scholar
  45. Yetkin, E., Toprak, V., Suezen, M. L., (2004). Alteration mapping by remote sensing: Application to Hasandağ-Melendiz Volcanic, Complex. In Geo-imagery bridging continents XXth ISPRS congress, Istanbul.Google Scholar
  46. Yousefifar, S., Khakzad, A., Asadi Harooni, H., Karami, J., Jafari, M. R., & Vosoughi Abedin, M. (2011). Prospection of Au and Cu bearing targets by exploration data combination in southern part of Dalli Cu-Au porphyry deposit,Central Iran. Archives of Mining Sciences, 56(1), 21–34.Google Scholar
  47. Zhang, X., Pazner, M., & Duke, N. (2007). Lithologic and mineral information extraction for gold exploration using ASTER data in the south chocolate mountains (California). ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 62, 271–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Society of Remote Sensing 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mina Zamyad
    • 1
  • Peyman Afzal
    • 2
    Email author
  • Mohsen Pourkermani
    • 1
  • Reza Nouri
    • 1
    • 3
  • Mohammad Reza Jafari
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geology, North Tehran BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, South Tehran BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of MiningOmran Moomun Chabahar Co.TehranIran

Personalised recommendations