Urban Sprawl and Its Impact on Generation of Urban Heat Island: A Case Study of Ludhiana City
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Rapid urbanization is transforming the land-use patterns in developing world very fast. Swelling population is altering agricultural land into industrial, administrative or cultural land uses, which is resulting in growing environmental problems and has also degraded the quality of life in cities. Ludhiana, the largest city of Punjab, has been urbanizing significantly in the post-independence period. This industrial city is facing various environmental and related problems due to urban sprawl and unplanned growth. Here, an attempt is made to study the problem of urban sprawl in Ludhiana city with the application of remote sensing and GIS techniques. The research is undertaken through the use of satellite imageries and topographical sheets from 1955 to 2015 periods. Thematic layers related to urban sprawl and heat island have been extracted from satellite imageries. Patterns of built-up area, annual growth rates and the urban sprawl are calculated and examined. Consequently, patterns and trends of urban sprawl and its impact on city’s environment and urban heat island are evaluated. Data analysis reveals that haphazard and unplanned urban growth in Ludhiana has resulted in exponential growth of urban built-up areas; thus, the creation of urban heat island during the study period has caused severe deficits in urban infrastructure, escalation of pollution and occurrence of unhealthy living environment in the industrial city.
KeywordsGeographical information system Landscape metrics Remote sensing Urban heat island Urban planning Urban sprawl
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