Selection of a Spectral Index for Detection of Orange Spotting Disease in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Using Red Edge and Neural Network Techniques

  • Kamlesh Golhani
  • Siva K. BalasundramEmail author
  • Ganesan Vadamalai
  • Biswajeet Pradhan
Research Article


Spectral screening can play an important role in successful detection of viroid-infected oil palm seedlings from nursery stage prior to transplanting into the field. Coconut cadang–cadang viroid (CCCVd) is the main causal agent of orange spotting (OS) disease. OS disease is an emerging disease in Malaysian plantation. In this study, a glasshouse experiment was conducted with fifteen CCCVd-inoculated and five healthy oil palm seedlings in the growing season of 2015. Spectral screening was performed using a hyperspectral spectroradiometer, Analytic Spectral Device HandHeld 2 (325–1075 nm). The red edge, a steep gradient in reflectance between red and near-infrared bands (680–780 nm), was used for selection of red edge bands. A maximum point (i.e., 700 nm) and minimum point (i.e., 768 nm) of red edge were selected from healthy and inoculated spectra. Shifts of red edge inflection point from healthy to inoculated spectra were also studied. Four well-known spectral indices, namely simple ratio, red edge normalized difference vegetation index, two-band enhanced vegetation index 2 (EVI2), and chlorophyll index red edge, were evaluated using selected red edge bands. The multilayer perceptron neural network model was used to establish a nonlinear relationship between selected spectral bands and each spectral index. EVI2 was selected as a best spectral index which resulted in zero errors at the training, testing, and validation datasets. The highest coefficient of correlation (r = 1) was recorded between spectral bands (input values) and EVI2 (target values).


Orange spotting Spectroradiometer Red edge EVI2, MLPNN 



We express our sincere gratitude to ASD Inc., a PANalytical company, Boulder Colorado, USA, for awarding instrument support (FieldSpec HandHeld 2) under the Alexander Goetz Instrument Support Program 2015. The authors also wish to thank Dr. Sathis Sri Thanarajoo, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia, for preparing inoculants for inoculation of oil palm seedlings.


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Copyright information

© Indian Society of Remote Sensing 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agriculture Technology, Faculty of AgricultureUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of AgricultureUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  3. 3.School of Systems, Management and Leadership, Faculty of Engineering and ITUniversity of Technology SydneyBroadwayAustralia

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