Human mobility in the Lop Nur region during the Han-Jin Dynasties: a multi-approach study

  • Xueye WangEmail author
  • Hui Shen
  • Dong Wei
  • Xingjun Hu
  • Bing Xu
  • Xiaoguang Qin
  • Zihua TangEmail author
Original Paper


The Lop Nur region, as the junction of the Silk Roads, played an important role in ancient human migration between the East and the West, especially during the Han-Jin Dynasties (second century CE to fourth century CE). However, the scale and volume of human mobility in the region remain poorly understood. Here, we present a multi-approach (wood identification, strontium and oxygen isotopes of tooth enamel and historical documents) to investigate the extent of human mobility in the Lop Nur region. From a Han-Jin Dynasties cemetery, the appearance of nonlocal wood might suggest the existence of human migratory behaviors in the Lop Nur region. Furthermore, a piece of lacquerware with the possible origin of eastern China and a large-scale mural tomb likely belonged to a Kushan emigrant indicate the existence of long-distance connections across the Asia interior. Strontium and oxygen isotope data show a highly mobile population in the Lop Nur region, and the great isotopic variation suggests that these immigrants have diverse origins. In context with historical documents, we infer that the Lop Nur region was once the political, economic, and cultural meeting place of various societies, and also a communication corridor on the Silk Roads during the Han-Jin Dynasties.


Migration Lop Nur region Isotopic analysis Silk Roads Han-Jin Dynasties 



We thank Prof. Janet Montgomery, Ms. Tessi Loeffelmann, and Ms. Lauren Kancle from Durham University for their helpful discussion and Ms. Li Youlian and Ms. Cui Linlin of IGGCAS for laboratory assistance. In addition, we are indebted to the editor Prof. Dorian Q Fuller and two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments, which greatly improve the manuscript.

Funding information

This work was funded by the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDB26020401), the National Science Foundation of China (41672177), and the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China (2014FY210500).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Amiot R, Wang X, Zhou ZH, Wang XL, Lécuyer C, Buffetaut E, Frédéric F, Ding ZL, Kusuhashi N, Mo JY, Philipp M, Suteethorn V, Wang YQ, Xu X (2015) Environment and ecology of east Asian dinosaurs during the early cretaceous inferred from stable oxygen and carbon isotopes in apatite. J Asian Earth Sci 98:358–370. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ban G (1962) The book of Han. Zhonghua Book Company, Beijing (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  3. Bentley RA (2006) Strontium isotopes from the earth to the archaeological skeleton: a review. J Archaeol Method Theory 13(3):135–187. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bentley RA, Bickle P, Fibiger L, Nowell GM, Dale CW, Hedges RE, Hamilton J, Wahl J, Francken M, Grupe G, Lenneis E, Teschler-Nicola M, Arbogast RM, Hofmann D, Whittle A (2012) Community differentiation and kinship among Europe’s first farmers. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109:9326–9330. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bentley RA, Price TD, Stephan E (2004) Determining the ‘local’ 87Sr/86Sr range for archaeological skeletons: a case study from Neolithic Europe. J Archaeol Sci 31:365–375. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Britton K (2009) Multi-Isotope analysis and the reconstruction of prey specis and palaeoecology. PhD Thesis, Department of Archaeology, Durham UniversityGoogle Scholar
  7. Buzon MR, Bowen GJ (2010) Oxygen and carbon isotope analysis of human tooth enamel from the New Kingdom site of Tombos in Nubia. Archaeometry 52:855–868. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carter ML (1968) Dionysiac aspects of Kushan art. Ars orientalis 7:121–146Google Scholar
  9. Chen XL (2012) Kushan cultural elements in the Loulan mural tomb. Archaeol and Cultural Relics 2:14 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  10. Chen XL (2016) The Yuezhi-Kushan people in the Tarim Basin. Frontier Archaeol 19:208–221 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  11. Chenery CA, Müldner G, Evans JA, Eckardt H, Lewis M (2010) Strontium and stable isotope evidence for diet and mobility in Roman Gloucester, UK. J Archaeol Sci 37:150–163. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chenery CA, Pashley V, Lamb AL, Sloane HJ, Evans JA (2012) The oxygen isotope relationship between the phosphate and structural carbonate fractions of human bioapatite. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 26:309–319. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chillón BS, Alberdi MT, Leone G, Bonadonna FP, Stenni B, Longinelli A (1994) Oxygen isotopic composition of fossil equid tooth and bone phosphate: an archive of difficult interpretation. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 107:317–328. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Coplen TB (1988) Normalization of oxygen and hydrogen isotope data. Chem Geol 72:293–297. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crowley BE, Miller JH, Bataille CP (2017) Strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) in terrestrial ecological and palaeoecological research: empirical efforts and recent advances in continental-scale models. Biol Rev 92:43–59. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cui LL, Wang X (2014) Determination of carbon and oxygen isotopes of geological samples with a complicated matrix: comparison of different analytical methods. Anal Methods 6:9173–9178. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dansgaard W (1964) Stable isotopes in precipitation. Tellus 16:436–468. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Daux V, Lécuyer C, Héran MA, Amiot R, Simon L, Fourel F, Martineau F, Lynnerup N, Reychler H, Escarguel G (2008) Oxygen isotope fractionation between human phosphate and water revisited. J Hum Evol 55:1138–1147. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. de la Vaissière É (2005) Sogdian traders: a history. Brill, leiden & BostonGoogle Scholar
  20. Deng YM, Wang YX, Ma T (2009) Isotope and minor element geochemistry of high arsenic groundwater from Hangjinhouqi, the Hetao plain, Inner Mongolia. Appl Geochem 24:587–599. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ding TP, Gao JF, Tian SH, Wang HB, Wang CY, Luo XR (2016) Chemical and isotopic characters of the water and suspended particulate materials in the Yellow River and their geological and environmental implications. Acta Geol Sin (Engl Ed) 90:285–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dong ZB, Lv P, Qian GQ, Xia XC, Zhao YJ, Mu GJ (2012) Research progress in China’s Lop Nur. Earth-Sci Rev 111:142–153. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Evans JA, Chenery CA, Montgomery J (2012) A summary of strontium and oxygen isotope variation in archaeological human tooth enamel excavated from Britain. J Anal At Spectrom 27:754–764. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Evans JA, Stoodley N, Chenery CA (2006) A strontium and oxygen isotope assessment of a possible fourth century immigrant population in a Hampshire cemetery, southern England. J Archaeol Sci 33:265–272. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Evans JA, Montgomery J, Wildman G, Boulton N (2010) Spatial variations in biosphere 87Sr/86Sr in Britain. J Geol Soc 167:1–4. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fahn A, Werker E (1986) Wood anatomy and identification of trees and shrubs from Israel and adjacent regions. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, JerusalemGoogle Scholar
  27. Fan Y (2000) The book of the later Han dynasty. Zhonghua Book Company, Beijing (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  28. Fan Y, Chen FH, Wei GX, Madsen DB, Oviatt CG, Zhao H, Chun X, Yang LP, Fan TL, Li GQ (2009) Potential water sources for Late Quaternary Megalake Jilantai-Hetao, China, inferred from mollusk shell 87Sr/86Sr ratios. J Paleolimnol 43(3):577–587. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Frachetti MD, Smith CE, Traub CM, Williams T (2017) Nomadic ecology shaped the highland geography of Asia’s silk roads. Nature 543:193–198. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gao J, Li MS, Xiao XC, Tang YQ, He GQ (1998) Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the Tianshan Orogen, northwestern China. Tectonophysics 287:213–231. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hansen V (2012) The silk road: a new history. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Hemudu archaeological team (1980) Main finds from the second excavation at Hemudu, Zhejiang. Cultural Relics, (5):1–15 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  33. Hou C, Yang DX (1999) The study of the Chinese documents from the Loulan kingdom. Tiandi Press, ChengduGoogle Scholar
  34. Iacumin P, Bocherens H, Mariotti A, Longinelli A (1996) Oxygen isotope analyses of co-existing carbonate and phosphate in biogenic apatite: a way to monitor diagenetic alteration of bone phosphate? Earth Planet Sci Lett 142:1–6. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) (2018) Regionalized cluster-based water isotope prediction (RCWIP). Accessed Dec 2018
  36. Jia CJ (2004) Some quesitons about Han people in the Western regions. Western Reg Stud 4:1–8 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  37. Jin ZD, Wang SM, Zhang F, Shi YW (2010) Weathering, Sr fluxes, and controls on water chemistry in the Lake Qinghai catchment, NE Tibetan plateau. Earth Surf Process Landf 35:1057–1070. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jin ZD, You CF, Yu JM, Wu LL, Zhang F, Liu HC (2011) Seasonal contributions of catchment weathering and eolian dust to river water chemistry, northeastern Tibetan plateau: chemical and Sr isotopic constraints. J Geophys Res 116:F04006. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jin ZD, Yu JM, Wang SM, Zhang F, Shi YW, You CF (2009) Constraints on water chemistry by chemical weathering in the Lake Qinghai catchment, northeastern Tibetan plateau (China): clues from Sr and its isotopic geochemistry. Hydrogeol J 17:2037–2048. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Knipper C, Mittnik A, Massy K, Kociumaka C, Kucukkalipci I, Maus M, Wittenborn F, Metz SE, Staskiewicz A, Krause J, Stockhammer PW (2017) Female exogamy and gene pool diversification at the transition from the Final Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age in Central Europe. Proc Natl Acad Sci 114:10083–10088. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Knudson KJ, Price TD, Buikstra JE, Blom DE (2004) The use of strontium isotope analysis to investigate Tiwanaku migration and mortuary ritual in Bolivia and Peru. Archaeometry 46:5–18. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kohn MJ (1996) Predicting animal δ18O: accounting for diet and physiological adaptation. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 60:4811–4829. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kopplin M (2002) Lacquerware in Asia: today and yesterday. Unesco Publishing, ParisGoogle Scholar
  44. Kuzmina EE (2008) The prehistory of the silk road. University of Pennylvania Press, PhiladelphiaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Levinson AA, Luz B, Kolodny Y (1987) Variations in oxygen isotopic compositions of human teeth and urinary stones. Appl Geochem 2(4):367–371. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Li CX, Li HJ, Cui YQ, Xie CZ, Cai DW, Li WY, Mair VH, Xu Z, Zhang QC, Abuduresule I, Jin L, Zhu H, Zhou H (2010) Evidence that a west-east admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age. BMC Biol 8:15. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Li DY (2006) Shuijingzhu. Huaxia publishing house, Beijing (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  48. Li H, Zhang WK, Wang GH (2012) Relationship between climatic factors and geographical distribution of spruce forests in China. Chin J Plant Ecol 36:372–381 (In Chinese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Li KK, Qin XG, Zhang L et al (2019) Oasis landscape of the ancient Loulan on the west bank of Lake Lop Nur, Northwest China, inferred from vegetation utilization for architecture. The Holocene, in press CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Li WP, Hao AB, Zheng YJ, Liu B, Yu DS (2006) Regional environmental isotopic features of groundwater and their hydrogeological explanation in the Tarim Basin. Earth Sci Frontiers 13(1):191–198 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  51. Li YY (2013) The research about provincal population migration and regional economic development in China—based on analysis on the sixth census data. Phd Thesis, Jilin UniversityGoogle Scholar
  52. Liu CL, Wang ML, Jiao PC (1999) Hydrogen, oxygen, strontium and sulfur isotope geochemistry and potash-forming material sources of lop salt lake, Xinjiang. Mineral Deposits 18:268–275 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  53. Liu WJ, Jiang H, Shi C, Zhao T, Liang CS, Hu J, Xu ZF (2016) Chemical and strontium isotopic characteristics of the rivers around the Badain Jaran Desert, Northwest China: implication of river solute origin and chemical weathering. Environ Earth Sci 75:1119–1116. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Longinelli A (1984) Oxygen isotopes in mammal bone phosphate: a new tool for paleohydrological and paleocli-matological research? Geochim Cosmochim Acta 48:385–390. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lugli F, Cipriani A, Capecchi G, Ricci S, Boschin F, Boscato P, Iacumin P, Badino F, Mannino MA, Talamo S, Richards MP, Benazzi S, Ronchitelli A (2019) Strontium and stable isotope evidence of human mobility strategies across the last glacial maximum in southern Italy. Nat Ecol Evol 3:905–911. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Luz B, Kolodny Y, Horowitz M (1984) Fractionation of oxygen isotopes between mammalian bone-phosphate and environmental drinking water. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 48:1689–1693. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ma DZ (2006) Several topics in the research of Xinjiang history. Western Reg Stud 2:1–14 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  58. Ma B, Jin MG, Liang X, Li J (2017) Groundwater mixing and mineralization processes in a mountain-oasis-desert basin, Northwest China: hydrogeochemistry and environmental tracer indicators. Hydrogeol J 26:233–250. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ma LF, Qiao XF, Liu NL (2002) Geological atlas of China. Geological Publishing House, Beijing (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  60. Montgomery J (2010) Passports from the past: investigating human dispersals using strontium isotope analysis of tooth enamel. Ann Hum Biol 37:325–346. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Noh H, Huh Y, Qin JH, Ellis A (2009) Chemical weathering in the three Rivers region of eastern Tibet. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 73:1857–1877. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pederzani S, Britton K (2019) Oxygen isotopes in bioarchaeology: principles and applications, challenges and opportunities. Earth-Sci Rev 188:77–107. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Pellegrini M, Pouncett J, Jay M, Pearson MP, Richards MP (2016) Tooth enamel oxygen “isoscapes” show a high degree of human mobility in prehistoric Britain. Sci Rep 6:34986. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Price TD, Arcini C, Gustin I, Drenzel L, Kalmring S (2018) Isotopes and human burials at Viking age Birka and the Mälaren region, east Central Sweden. J Anthropol Archaeol 49:19–38. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Price TD, Burton JH, Bentley RA (2002) The characterization of biologically available strontium isotope ratios for the study of prehistoric migration. Archaeometry 44:117–135. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Price TD, Frei R, Brinker U, Lidke G, Terberger T, Frei KM, Jantzen D (2017) Multi-isotope proveniencing of human remains from a Bronze Age battlefield in the Tollense Valley in Northeast Germany. Archaeol Anthropol Sci 11:33–49. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rao W, Jin K, Jiang S, Tan H, Han L, Tang Q (2015) Chemical and strontium isotopic characteristics of shallow groundwater in the Ordos Desert plateau, North China: implications for the dissolved Sr source and water–rock interactions. Chem Erde 75:365–374. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Reimer PJ, Bard E, Bayliss A et al (2013) IntCal13 and Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves 0–50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55:1869–1887. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rosenfield JM (1967) The dynastic arts of the Kushans. Univeristy of California Press, Berkeley & Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  70. Schour I, Massler M (1940) Studies in tooth development: the growth pattern of human teeth. J Am Dent Assoc 27:1918–1931. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Shen H, Wu XH, Tang ZH, Zhou XY, Sun N, Li XQ (2015) Wood usage and fire veneration in the Pamir, Xinjiang, 2500 yr BP. PLoS One 10:e0134847. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sima Q (1959) The Records of the Grand Historian. Zhonghua Book Company, Beijing (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  73. Smith BH (1991) Standards of human tooth formation and dental age assessment. In: Kelley MA, Larsen CS (eds) Advances in dental anthropology. Wiley-Liss, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  74. Snoeck C, Pouncett J, Ramsey G, Meighan IG, Mattielli N, Goderis S, Lee-Thorp JA, Schulting RJ (2016) Mobility during the Neolithic and Bronze age in Northern Ireland explored using strontium isotope analysis of cremated human bone. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:397–413. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Stanish C, Tantalean H, Knudson K (2018) Feasting and the evolution of cooperative social organizations circa 2300 B.P. in Paracas culture, southern Peru. Proc Natl Acad Sci 115:E6716–E6721. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Stein M (1921) Serindia: detailed report of explorations in Central Asia and westernmost China, vol 5. Clarendon Press, London & OxfordGoogle Scholar
  77. Stein M (1928) Innermost Asia: detailed report of explorations in Central Asia and westernmost China, vol 4. Clarendon Press, London & OxfordGoogle Scholar
  78. Su YP, Zheng JP, Griffin WL, Zhao JH, Tang HY, Ma Q, Lin XY (2012) Geochemistry and geochronology of carboniferous volcanic rocks in the eastern Junggar terrane, NW China: implication for a tectonic transition. Gondwana Res 22:1009–1029. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tang DY, Liu X (2011) Discussion on the Lacquerware cultural exchange between ancient China and Japan. China Coatings 26(2):62–67 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  80. Tong XX, Ma WM, Sun XL (2017) Characteristic and environmental significance of strontium isotope in glacial meltwater of the Tashkurgan area in Pamirs, Xinjiang. Environ Chem 36:830–838 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  81. Ventresca Miller AR, Winter-Schuh C, Usmanova ER, Logvin A, Shevnina I, Makarewicz CA (2017) Pastoralist mobility in Bronze Age landscapes of northern Kazakhstan: 87Sr/86Sr and δ18O analyses of human dentition from Bestamak and Lisakovsk. Environ Archaeol 23:352–366. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wang SC (1996) Capital of Loulan Kingdom and the historical position of Lop Nur region. Western Reg Stud 4:43–53 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  83. Wang XY, Tang ZH, Dong XX (2018) Distribution of strontium isotopes in river waters across the Tarim Basin: a map for migration studies. J Geol Soc 175:967–973. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wang XY, Tang ZH, Wu J, Wu XH, Wu YQ, Zhou XY (2016) Strontium isotope evidence for a highly mobile population on the Pamir plateau 2500 years ago. Sci Rep 6:35162. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wang ZJ (2016) A study of the Hun’s management of the western regions. China social sciences press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  86. Watt J (1991) East Asian lacquer: the Florence and Herbert Irving collection. The Metropolitan museum of art, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  87. Wright LE, Schwarcz HP (1998) Stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in human tooth enamel: identifying breastfeeding and weaning in prehistory. Am J Phys Anthropol 106:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wright LE, Schwarcz HP (1999) Correspondence between stable carbon, oxygen and nitrogen isotopes in human tooth enamel and dentine: infant diets at Kaminaljuyú. J Archaeol Sci 26:1159–1170. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wu LL, Huh YS, Qin JH, Du G, van Der Lee S (2005) Chemical weathering in the upper Huang He (Yellow River) draining the eastern Qinghai-Tibet plateau. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 69:5279–5294. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wu WH, Xu SJ, Yang JD, Yin HW, Tao XC (2009) Sr fluxes and isotopic compositions in the headwaters of the Yangtze River, Tongtian River and Jinsha River originating from the Qinghai–Tibet plateau. Chem Geol 260:63–72. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wu YS (1994) The sporo-pollen assemblage and its significance of pit F4 from Lop Nur area in Xinjiang. Arid Land Geogr 17:24–29 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  92. Xia XC, Wang FB, Zhao YJ (2007) Lop Nur of China. Science Press, Beijing (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  93. Xiao J, Jin ZD, Zhang F (2013) Geochemical and isotopic characteristics of shallow groundwater within the Lake Qinghai catchment, NE Tibetan plateau. Quat Int 313–314:62–73. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Xu B, Gu ZY, Qin XG, Wu Y, Mu GJ, Jiao YX, Zhang L, Hao QZ, Wang L, Wei D, Liu JQ (2017) Radiocarbon dating the ancient city of Loulan. Radiocarbon 59:1215–1226. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Xu ZF, Shi C, Tang Y, Han HY (2011) Chemical and strontium isotopic compositions of the Hanjiang Basin Rivers in China: anthropogenic impacts and chemical weathering. Aquat Geochem 17:243–264. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Yang YM, Shevchenko A, Knaust A, Abuduresule I, Li WY, Hu XJ, Wang CS, Shevchenko A (2014) Proteomics evidence for kefir dairy in early Bronze Age China. J Archaeol Sci 45:178–186. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Zhang J, Takahashi K, Wushiki H, Yabuki S, Xiong JM, Masuda A (1995) Water geochemistry of the rivers around the Taklimakan Desert (NW China): crustal weathering and evaporation processes in arid land. Chem Geol 119:225–237. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Zhou Q, Jiang XM (1994) Wood anatomy and ultrastructure of gymnospermous woods in China. China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing (In Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Cenozoic Geology and Environment, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.Innovation Academy for Earth Science, CASBeijingChina
  3. 3.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origin, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  5. 5.Research Centre for Chinese Frontier Archaeology, Jilin UniversityChangchunChina
  6. 6.Xinjiang Cultural Relics and Archaeology InstituteUrumqiChina

Personalised recommendations