A multi-isotope analysis of Neolithic human groups in the Yonne valley, Northern France: insights into dietary patterns and social structure

  • L. ReyEmail author
  • Domingo C. Salazar-García
  • P. h. Chambon
  • F. Santos
  • S. Rottier
  • G. Goude
Original Paper


With the arrival of the Neolithic to Europe, new ways of life and new subsistence strategies emerged. In the Paris Basin (northern France), the appearance of some monumental funerary structures during the Middle Neolithic highlights in particular the increasing complexity of the social organisation. At the same time, several sites, such as open-air cemeteries, do not display any evidence of such arrangement. In the southeast of this area, the two primary routes of neolithisation meet. Several funerary parameters attest to the diverse influence received from other surrounding cultures. In order to assess potential differences in diet, and therefore on purported social distinctions at the inter- and intra-site level, stable isotope analyses (carbon, nitrogen and sulphur) were performed on bone collagen of humans (n = 177) and non-human animals (n = 62) from seven archaeological sites located in the same area (< 10 km). This study is the biggest so far on French Neolithic material and thus allows for an extensive investigation at a regional scale. Results show that the human nitrogen isotopic ratios are relatively enriched in nitrogen-15 comparing to those of the domesticated animals. This reflects a trophic step that is rarely observed elsewhere in the surrounding Neolithic people, particularly for humans of the biggest site Gurgy “Les Noisats”. Though zooarchaeological data support a predominant cattle consumption, here, we propose a mixed protein consumption of cattle and pig, possibly complemented with some freshwater resources. Furthermore, carbon, nitrogen and sulphur isotopic ratios suggest some slight differences between sexes and sites. This sexual distinction has rarely been identified in the diet within a Neolithic context. Some variations over time were also detected. On the whole, this study seems to support previous observations made from burial practices about a specific regional Neolithic pattern in the Paris Basin as well as bring new elements into discussion of social organisation in human populations.


Neolithic Diet Carbon Nitrogen Sulphur Isotope 



The authors are very grateful to the researchers who provided information and material for this study: Nicolas Garmond, Jean-Gabriel Pariat, Ludivine Paleau, Jean-Baptiste Mallye, and Pierre Magniez. The authors also thank Gauthier Devilder for his assistance with the CAD. The authors are very grateful to the reviewers for helping to improve this manuscript. This paper has been reviewed by a language editing assistant.

Funding information

This research was funded by the DHP project (S. Rottier, Univ. Bordeaux, Lascarbx [ANR-10-LABX-52], 2012–2014) and by the Institut Danone France/Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale 2015 partnership (Women and diet at the beginning of farming, 5th – 3rd millennium BC, France: a bio-anthropological approach; Dir. G. Goude 2016-2017;

Supplementary material

12520_2019_885_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (3.3 mb)
ESM 1 (PDF 3366 kb)
12520_2019_885_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (1.8 mb)
ESM 2 (PDF 1865 kb)
12520_2019_885_MOESM3_ESM.xlsx (77 kb)
ESM 3 (XLSX 77 kb)
12520_2019_885_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (154 kb)
ESM 4 (PDF 154 kb)
12520_2019_885_MOESM5_ESM.csv (20 kb)
ESM 5 (CSV 20 kb)
12520_2019_885_MOESM6_ESM.pdf (551 kb)
ESM 6 (PDF 551 kb)
12520_2019_885_MOESM7_ESM.pdf (595 kb)
ESM 7 (PDF 594 kb)
12520_2019_885_MOESM8_ESM.pdf (707 kb)
ESM 8 (PDF 706 kb)
12520_2019_885_MOESM9_ESM.pdf (750 kb)
ESM 9 (PDF 750 kb)
12520_2019_885_MOESM10_ESM.pdf (630 kb)
ESM 10 (PDF 630 kb)
12520_2019_885_MOESM11_ESM.pdf (766 kb)
ESM 11 (PDF 766 kb)


  1. Ambrose SH (1990) Preparation and characterization of bone and tooth collagen for isotopic analysis. J Archaeol Sci 17:431–451. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ambrose SH (1991) Effects of diet, climate and physiology on nitrogen isotope abundances in terrestrial foodwebs. J Archaeol Sci 18:293–317. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ambrose SH, Krigbawm J (2003) Bone chemistry and bioarchaeology. J Anthropol Archaeol 22:191–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ambrose SH, Buikstra J, Krueger HW (2003) Status and gender differences in diet at Mound 72, Cahokia, revealed by isotopic analysis of bone. J Anthropol Archaeol 22:217–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson MJ (2001) A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Austral Ecology 26:32–46. Google Scholar
  6. Arneson LS, MacAvoy SE (2005) Carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur diet–tissue discrimination in mouse tissues. Can J Zool 83(7):989–995Google Scholar
  7. Augereau A (unpublished) L'industrie lithique de Gurgy "Les Noisats" (Yonne). Campagnes 2004–2006. In: Rottier S (ed) Rapport d'opération archéologique programmée (2007), vol 2010. SRA Bourgogne, DijonGoogle Scholar
  8. Augereau A, Chambon P (2011) Les occupations néolithiques de Macherin à Monéteau (Yonne) vol M53. Société Préhistorique Française, ParisGoogle Scholar
  9. Augereau A, Chambon P, Garmond N, Meunier K (2014) Beeching A Le Chasséen dans l’Yonne est-il aussi ancien qu’à Chassey ? In: Le Chasséen, des Chasséens… Retour sur une culture nationale et ses parallèles, Sepulcres de fossa, Cortaillod, Lagozza. Actes du colloque international tenu à Paris (France) du 18 au 20 novembre 2014, ParisGoogle Scholar
  10. Bakels C (1997) Le blé dans la culture de Cerny. In: Constantin C, Mordant D, Simonin D (eds) La culture de Cerny. Nouvelle économie, nouvelle société au Néolithique. Actes du Colloque International de Nemours, 1994, vol 6. Mémoires du Musée de Préhistoire d'Ile-de-France, pp 315–317Google Scholar
  11. Balasse M (1999) De l'exploitation du lait au Néolithique moyen en Europe tempérée : examen des modalités de sevrage des bovins, par l'analyse isotopique des ossements archéologiques. PhD Thesis, Université Paris VIGoogle Scholar
  12. Balasse M, Tresset A (2002) Early weaning of neolithic domestic cattle (Bercy, France) revealed by intra-tooth variation in nitrogen isotope ratios. J Archaeol Sci 29:853–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Balasse M, Bocherens H, Tresset A, Mariotti A, Vigne J-D (1997) Émergence de la production laitière au Néolithique ? Contribution de l'analyse isotopique d'ossements de bovins archéologiques. Cr Acad Sci II A 325:1005–1010. Google Scholar
  14. Balasse M, Tresset A, Bocherens H, Mariotti A, Vigne J-D (2000) Un abattage “post-lactation” sur des bovins domestiques néolithiques. Etude isotopique des restes osseux du site de Bercy (Paris, France). Anthropozoologica 31:39–48Google Scholar
  15. Balasse M, Boury L, Ughetto-Monfrin J, Tresset A (2012) Stable isotope insights (δ18O, δ13C) into cattle and sheep husbandry at Bercy (Paris, France, 4th millennium BC): birth seasonality and winter leaf foddering. Environ Archaeol 17:29–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Barnes C, Jennings S (2007) Effect of temperature, ration, body size and age on sulphur isotope fractionation in fish. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 21(8):1461–1467Google Scholar
  17. Bedault L (2009) First reflections on the exploitation of animals in Villeneuve-Saint-Germain society at the end of the early Neolithic in the Paris Basin (France). In: Hofmann D, Bickle P (eds) Creating communities: new advances in central European Neolithic research. Oxbow Books, Oxford, pp 111–131Google Scholar
  18. Billard C, Bostyn F, Hamon C, Meunier K (2014) Premiers paysans de la Plaine de Caen, L’habitat du Néolithique ancien de Colombelles « le Lazzaro » (Calvados) vol M58. Société Préhistorique Française, ParisGoogle Scholar
  19. Bocherens H (1992) Biogéochimie isotopique (13C, 15N, 18O) et paléontologie des vertébrés : application à l'étude des réseaux trophiques révolus et des paléoenvironnements. PhD Thesis, Université Paris VIGoogle Scholar
  20. Bocherens H (2009) Neanderthal dietary habits: review of the isotopic evidence. In: Hublin J-J, Richards MP (eds) The evolution of hominin diets: integrating approaches to the study of Palaeolithic subsistence. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 241–250. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bocherens H, Drucker D (2003) Trophic level isotopic enrichment of carbon and nitrogen in bone collagen: case studies from recent and ancient terrestrial ecosystems. Int J Osteoarchaeol 13:46–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bocherens H, Billiou D, Tresset A (2005) Approche biogéochimique (13C, 15N) de l'exploitation de l'environnement par les humains. In: Giligny F (ed) Louviers "La Villette" (Eure) : un site néolithique moyen en zone humide. Presses Universitaires de Rennes, Rennes, pp 265–269Google Scholar
  23. Bocherens H, Polet C, Toussaint M (2007) Palaeodiet of Mesolithic and Neolithic populations of Meuse Basin (Belgium): evidence from stable isotopes. J Archaeol Sci 34:10–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bocherens H, Drucker DG, Taubald H (2011) Preservation of bone collagen sulphur isotopic compositions in an early Holocene river-bank archaeological site. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 310:32–38. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bocherens H, Baryshnikov G, Van Neer W (2014) Were bears or lions involved in salmon accumulation in the Middle Palaeolithic of the Caucasus? An isotopic investigation in Kudaro 3 cave. Quat Int 339–340:112–118. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bogaard A, Heaton THE, Poulton P, Merbach I (2007) The impact of manuring on nitrogen isotope ratios in cereals: archaeological implications for reconstruction of diet and crop management practices. J Archaeol Sci 34:335–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bogaard A et al. (2013) Crop manuring and intensive land management by Europe’s first farmers. 110:12589–12594.
  28. Bonnardin S (unpublished) La parure de Gurgy “Les Noisats” (Yonne). Approche technologique, typologique et fonctionnelle (campagnes 2006 et 2007). In: Rottier S (ed) Rapport d'opération archéologique programmée (2007), vol 2010. SRA Bourgogne, DijonGoogle Scholar
  29. Bonsall C et al. (1997) Mesolithic and Early Neolithic in the Iron Gates: a palaeodietary perspective. 5:50–92.
  30. Bösl C, Grupe G, Peters J (2006) A Late Neolithic vertebrate food web based on stable isotope analyses. Int J Osteoarchaeol 16:296–315. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bostyn F (2003) Néolithique ancien en Haute-Normandie : le village Villeneuve-Saint-Germain de Poses « Sur la Mare » et les sites de la boucle du Vaudreuil vol T04. Société Préhistorique Française, ParisGoogle Scholar
  32. Bouby L, Léa V (2006) Exploitation de la vesce commune (Vicia sativa L.) au Néolithique moyen dans le Sud de la France. Données carpologiques du site de Claparouse (Lagnes, Vaucluse) 5:973–980. Google Scholar
  33. Bruzek J (2002) A method for visual determination of sex using the human hip bone. Am J Phys Anthropol 117:157–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chambon P (2003) Les Morts dans les sépultures collectives néolithiques en France. Du cadavre aux restes ultimes. vol 35. Supplément à Gallia PréhistoireGoogle Scholar
  35. Chambon P et al. (2009a) Evolution, coexistence et confrontation de pratiques funéraires entre 4500 et 4000 av. J.-C. sur un micro-territoire : la vallée de l’Yonne, entre le Serein et le Baulche. - Rapport de Projet collectif de Recherche. Service Régional de l'ArchéologieGoogle Scholar
  36. Chambon P, Mordant D, Pariat J-G (2009b) Sépultures du Néolithique moyen en Bassin parisien : le cas des architectures sépulcrales. In: Le Brun-Ricalens F, Valotteau F, Hauzeur A (eds) Relations interrégionales au Néolithique entre Bassin parisien et Bassin rhénan, Actes du 26e colloque interrégional sur le Néolithique, Luxembourg, 8 et 9 novembre 2003. Archaeologia Mosellana 7:445–467Google Scholar
  37. Chambon P, Delor JP, Augereau A, Gibaja Bao JF, Meunier K, Thomas A, Murail P, Molez D (2010) La nécropole du Néolithique moyen de Sur les Pâtureaux a Chichery (Yonne). Gallia Préhistoire 52:117–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Chambon P, Rottier S, Augereau A, Bonnardin S, Meunier K, Pariat J-G (2013) Evolution, coexistence et confrontation de pratiques funéraires entre 4700 et 4000 av. J.-C. sur un microterritoire dans la vallée de l'Yonne. In: Jaubert J, Fourment N, Depaepe P (eds) Transitions, ruptures et continuité en Préhistoire, XXVIIe Congrès Préhistorique de France, Bordeaux - Les Eyzies 2010, vol 1. Société Préhistorique Française, Paris, pp 213–228Google Scholar
  39. Clavel B (2009) Site de pêche néolithique au bord de l'Aisne. Archéopages 26:22–23Google Scholar
  40. Clavel B, Arbogast R-M (2007) Fish exploitation from early neolithic sites in northern France : the first data. In: Dobiat C, Leidorf K (eds) The role of fish in ancient time. 13th Meeting of the International Council of the ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group. Internationale Archäologie 8:85–91Google Scholar
  41. Constantin C, Mordant D, Simonin D (1997) La culture de Cerny. Nouvelle économie, nouvelle société au Néolithique. Actes du Colloque International de Nemours, 1994 vol 6. Mémoires du Musée de Préhistoire d'Ile-de-France, Nemours : A.P.R.A.I.FGoogle Scholar
  42. Cooper CG, Lupo KD, Zena AG, Schmitt DN, Richards MP (2018) Stable isotope ratio analysis (C, N, S) of hair from modern humans in Ethiopia shows clear differences related to subsistence regimes.
  43. Coutelas A, Hauzeur A, Courboin-Gresillaud E, Terrom J (2015) with the collaboration of Chesnaux L, Chol E, Chrzavzez J, Fernandès P, Gomez de Soto J, Goude G, Louyot D, Mens E, Roux L, Rué M, Varennes G. Pussigny (37), « Le Vigneau 2 ». Nécropoles néolithique et protohistoriques. Rapport final d'opération. Orléans: SRA Centre. 1113 pGoogle Scholar
  44. Cristiani E et al. (2018) Dental calculus and isotopes provide direct evidence of fish and plant consumption in Mesolithic Mediterranean. 8:8147.
  45. de Luca A, Boisseau N, Tea I, Louvet I, Robins RJ, Forhan A, Charles MA, Hankard R (2012) δ15N and δ13C in hair from newborn infants and their mothers: a cohort study. Pediatr Res 71:598–604. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. de Mendiburu F (2017) agricolae: statistical procedures for agricultural research. R package version 1.2–8. <>
  47. Delmas PD (1993) Biochemical markers of bone turnover. J Bone Miner Res 8:S549–S555. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. DeNiro MJ (1985) Postmortem preservation and alteration of in vivo bone collagen isotope ratios in relation to palaeodietary reconstruction. Nature 317:806–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. DeNiro MJ, Epstein S (1978) Influence of diet on the distribution of carbon isotopes in animals. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42:495–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. DeNiro MJ, Epstein S (1981) Influence of diet on the distribution of nitrogen isotopes in animals. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 45:341–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Drucker D, Bocherens H (2004) Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes as tracers of change in diet breadth during Middle and Upper Palaeolithic in Europe. Int J Osteoarchaeol 14:162–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Drucker DG, Rosendahl W, Van Neer W, Weber M-J, Görner I, Bocherens H (2016a) Environment and subsistence in North-Western Europe during the Younger Dryas: an isotopic study of the human of Rhünda (Germany). J Archaeol Sci Rep 6:690–699. Google Scholar
  53. Drucker DG, Valentin F, Thevenet C, Mordant D, Cottiaux R, Delsate D, Van Neer W (2016b) Aquatic resources in human diet in the late Mesolithic in Northern France and Luxembourg: insights from carbon, nitrogen and sulphur isotope ratios. Archaeol Anthropol Sci 10:1–18. Google Scholar
  54. Dufour E, Bocherens H, Mariotti A (1999) Palaeodietary implications of isotopic variability in eurasian lacustrine fish. J Archaeol Sci 26:617–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Dürrwächter C, Craig OE, Collins MJ, Burger J, Alt KW (2006) Beyond the grave: variability in Neolithic diets in Southern Germany? J Archaeol Sci 33:39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Farquhar GD, Ehleringer JR, Hubick KT (1989) Carbon isotope discrimination and photosynthesis. Annu Rev Plant Phys 40:503–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Fernandes R, Millard AR, Brabec M, Nadeau M-J, Grootes P (2014) Food reconstruction using isotopic transferred signals (FRUITS): a Bayesian model for diet reconstruction. PLoS One 9:e87436. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Finlay JC, Kendall C (2007) Stable isotope tracing of temporal and spatial variability in organic matter sources to freshwater ecosystems. In: Michener R, Lajtah K (eds) Stable isotopes in ecology and environmental science. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, pp 283–333.
  59. Goude G (2014) Etude isotopique des restes humains du site de Mont d'Hubert (Escalles): ressources alimentaires et exploitation de l'environnement. In: Praud I, Panloups E (eds) Rapport de fouille préventive. Escalles, Mont d'Hubert : une enceinte du Néolithique Moyen II, des fosses du Néolithique Moyen I et du Bronze final sur le littoral de la mer du Nord : INRAP. pp 332–336Google Scholar
  60. Goude G, Fontugne M (2016) Carbon and nitrogen isotopic variability in bone collagen during the Neolithic period: influence of environmental factors and diet. J Archaeol Sci 70:117–131. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Goude G, Schmitt A, Herrscher E, Loison G, Cabut S, André G (2013) Pratiques alimentaires au Néolithique moyen : nouvelles données sur le site de Pontcharaud 2 (Puy-de-Dôme, Auvergne, France). Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 110:299–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Goude G, Balasescu A, Reveillas H, Thomas Y, Lefranc P (2014) Diet variability and stable isotope analyses: looking for variables within the late Neolithic and Iron Age human groups from Gougenheim site and surrounding areas (Alsace, France). Int J Osteoarcheol 25:988–996. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Goude G, Salazar-García DC, Power RC, Terrom J, Rivollat M, Deguilloux MF, Pemonge MH, le Bailly M, Andre G, Coutelas A, Hauzeur A (2018) A multidisciplinary approach to Neolithic life reconstruction. J Archaeol Method Theory 26:537–560. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gron KJ, Gröcke DR, Larsson M, Sørensen L, Larsson L, Rowley-Conwy P, Church MJ (2017) Nitrogen isotope evidence for manuring of early Neolithic Funnel Beaker Culture cereals from Stensborg, Sweden. 14:575–579.
  65. Hachem L, Bedault L, Leduc C (2014) L'élevage et la chasse au Chasséen septentrional : renouvellement des connaissances d'après l'étude des enceintes de Villers-Carbonnel (Somme) et de Passel (Oise). In: Le Chasséen, des Chasséens : retour sur une culture nationale et ses parallèles, Sepulcres de fossa, Cortaillod, Lagozza, Paris, 18–20 novembre 2014, Archives d’Écologie Préhistorique, pp 241–258Google Scholar
  66. Heaton THE (1999) Spatial, species, and temporal variations in the 13C/12C ratios of C3 plants : implications for palaeodiet studies. J Archaeol Sci 26:637–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Heaton THE, Vogel JC, Von la Chevallerie G, Collett G (1986) Climatic influence on the isotopic composition of bone nitrogen. Nature 322:822–823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hedges REM, Reynard LM (2007) Nitrogen isotopes and the trophic level of humans in archaeology. J Archaeol Sci 34:1240–1251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hedges REM, Stevens RE, Richards MP (2004) Bone as a stable isotope archive for local climatic information. Quat Sci Rev 23:959–965. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hedges RE, Clement JG, Thomas CD, O'Connell TC (2007) Collagen turnover in the adult femoral mid-shaft: modeled from anthropogenic radiocarbon tracer measurements. Am J Phys Anthropol 133:808–816. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Herrscher E, Thomas A, Chambon P, Mordant D, André G (2012) Pratiques alimentaires et nécropoles monumentales au Néolithique: le cas des sujets du site de Balloy-les Reaudins (culture de Cerny, Ve millénaire, Bassin Parisien). 1837e Journées de la Société d'anthropologie de Paris, Bordeaux (25-27 janvier 2012). BMSAP 24:S21Google Scholar
  72. Herrscher E, Goude G, Metz L (2017) Longitudinal study of stable isotope compositions of maternal milk and implications for the palaeo-diet of infants. Bull Mém Soc Anthropol Paris 29:131–139. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ilett M, Constantin C, Farruggia J-P, Bakels C (1995) Bâtiments voisins du Rubané et du groupe de Villeneuve-Saint-Germain sur le site de Bucy-le-Long «La Fosse Tounise» (Aisne). Revue Archéologique de Picardie 9:17–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Jovanović J, de Becdelièvre C, Goude G, Le Roy M, Herrscher E, Stefanović S (2015) Diet and health status of children at the Mesolithic Neolithic transition in the Danube Gorges. Archaika 3:42–65Google Scholar
  75. Jovanović J, de Becdelièvre C, Stefanović S, Živaljević I, Dimitrijević V, Goude G (2019) Last hunters–first farmers: new insight into subsistence strategies in the Central Balkans through multi-isotopic analysis. Archaeol Anthropol Sci 11:3279-3298.
  76. Kanstrup M, Thomsen IK, Mikkelsen PH, Christensen BT (2012) Impact of charring on cereal grain characteristics: linking prehistoric manuring practice to δ15N signatures in archaeobotanical material. J Archaeol Sci 39:2533–2540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Le Roy M (2015) Les enfants au Néolithique : du contexte funéraire à l'interprétation socio-culturelle en France de 5700 à 2100 ans av. J.C. PhD Thesis, Université de BordeauxGoogle Scholar
  78. Longin R (1971) New method of collagen extraction for radiocarbon dating. Nature 230:241–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Martin L, Bouby L, Marinval P, Dietsch-Sellami M-F, Rousselet O, Cabanis M, Durand F (2014) Exploitation des ressources végétales au Chasséen : un bilan des données carpologiques. In: Le Chasséen, des Chasséens : retour sur une culture nationale et ses parallèles, Sepulcres de fossa, Cortaillod, Lagozza, Paris, 18–20Google Scholar
  80. McCutchan JH, Lewis WM, Kendall C, McGrath CC (2003) Variation in trophic shift for stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Oikos 102(2):378–390Google Scholar
  81. Mekota A-M, Grupe G, Ufer S, Cuntz U (2006) Serial analysis of stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes in hair: monitoring starvation and recovery phases of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 20:1604–1610. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Meunier K (2007) Gurgy “Le Nouzeau” (89 - Bourgogne). INRAP, Final Operation Report, unpublishedGoogle Scholar
  83. Meunier K, Augereau A, Hamon C, Duhamel P (2006) Le site Villeneuve-Saint-Germain de Gurgy 'Les Grands Champs' (Yonne). In: Duhamel P (ed) Impacts interculturels au Néolithique moyen. Du terroir au territoire : sociétés et espace. Actes du 25e colloque interrégional sur le Néolithique, Dijon (20–21 octobre 2001). Revue archéologique de l'Est S25:287–301Google Scholar
  84. Meunier K et al (2012) Deux enceintes du Néolithique moyen 1 à Gurgy "le Nouzeau" (Yonne). InterNéo 9:61–72Google Scholar
  85. Minagawa M, Wada E (1984) Stepwise enrichment of 15N along food chains: further evidence and the relation between δ15N and animal age. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 48:1135–1140. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Moorrees CFA, Fanning EA, Hunt EE (1963) Age variation of formation stages for 10 permanent teeth. J Dent Res 42:1490–1502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Murail P, Bruzek J, Houët F, Cunha E (2005) DSP : a tool for probabilistic sex diagnosis using worldwide variability in hip-bone measurements. Bull Mém Soc Anthropol Paris 17:167–176Google Scholar
  88. Naito YI, Chikaraishi Y, Ohkouchi N, Drucker D, Bocherens H (2013) Nitrogen isotopic composition of collagen amino acids as an indicator of aquatic resource consumption: insights from Mesolithic and Epipalaeolithic archaeological sites in France. World Archaeol 45:338–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Nehlich O (2015) The application of Sulphur isotope analyses in archaeological research: a review. Earth-Sci Rev 142:1–17. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Nehlich O, Richards M (2009) Establishing collagen quality criteria for sulphur isotope analysis of archaeological bone collagen. Archaeol Anthropol Sci 1:59–75. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Nehlich O, Montgomery J, Evans J, Schade-Lindig S, Pichler SL, Richards MP, Alt KW (2009) Mobility or migration: a case study from the Neolithic settlement of Nieder-Mörlen (Hessen, Germany). J Archaeol Sci 36:1791–1799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Nehlich O, Borić D, Stefanović S, Richards MP (2010) Sulphur isotope evidence for freshwater fish consumption: a case study from the Danube Gorges, SE Europe. J Archaeol Sci 37:1131–1139. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Nehlich O, Barrett JH, Richards MP (2013) Spatial variability in sulphur isotope values of archaeological and modern cod (Gadus morhua). Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 27:2255–2262. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Oelze VM, Siebert A, Nicklisch N, Meller H, Dresely V, Alt KW (2011) Early Neolithic diet and animal husbandry: stable isotope evidence from three Linearbandkeramik (LBK) sites in Central Germany. J Archaeol Sci 38:270–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Oksanen J et al (2017) Vegan: Community Ecology Package. R package, version 2.4Google Scholar
  96. O'Leary MH (1988) Carbon isotopes in photosynthesis. BioScience 38:328–336. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Pellet C (1978) La nécropole rubanée de L'Etang David à Chichery (Yonne). Revue archéologique de l'Est et du Centre-Est 29:65–84Google Scholar
  98. Petzke KJ, Fuller BT (2012) Stable isotope ratio analysis in human hair. In: Preedy VR (ed) Handbook of hair in health and disease. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, pp 332–351. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Prestreau M, Thevenot JP (1996) L'axe Yonne-Armançon-Saône au Néolithique moyen : Cadre chronologique et interpénétrations culturelles. Revue archéologique de l'Est et du Centre-Est Supplément 14:383–396Google Scholar
  100. Privat KL, O'Connell TC, Hedges REM (2007) The distinction between freshwater- and terrestrial-based diets: methodological concerns and archaeological applications of Sulphur stable isotope analysis. J Archaeol Sci 34:1197–1204. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. R Core Team (2018) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria <>
  102. Rey L, Goude G, Rottier S (2017) Comportements alimentaires au Néolithique : nouveaux résultats dans le Bassin parisien à partir de l’étude isotopique (δ13C, δ15N) de la nécropole de Gurgy « Les Noisats » (Yonne, Ve millénaire av. J.-C.). Bull Mém Soc Anthropol Paris 29:54–69. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Richards MP, Hedges REM (1999) A Neolithic revolution? New evidence of diet in the British Neolithic. Antiquity 73:891–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Richards MP, Fuller BT, Hedges REM (2001) Sulphur isotopic variation in ancient bone collagen from Europe: implications for human palaeodiet, residence mobility, and modern pollutant studies. Earth Planet Sci Lett 191:185–190. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Richards MP, Schulting RJ, Hedges REM (2003) Sharp shift in diet at onset of Neolithic. Nature 425:366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rivollat M, Mendisco F, Pemonge MH, Safi A, Saint-Marc D, Brémond A, Couture-Veschambre C, Rottier S, Deguilloux MF (2015) When the waves of European Neolithization Met: first paleogenetic evidence from early farmers in the southern Paris Basin. PLoS One 10:e0125521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Robson HK, Skipitytė R, Piličiauskienė G, Lucquin A, Heron C, Craig OE, Piličiauskas G (2019) Diet, cuisine and consumption practices of the first farmers in the southeastern Baltic. Archaeol Anthropol Sci.
  108. Rottier S (2007) L’architecture funéraire des sépultures du Néolithique moyen des Noisats à Gurgy (Yonne, France). In: Moinat P, Chambon P (eds) Les cistes de Chamblandes et la place des coffres dans les pratiques funéraires du Néolithique moyen occidental, vol 110, Mémoire XLIII. Cahiers d'archéologie romande (110) et Société préhistorique française (Mémoire 43), Actes du colloque de Lausanne (12-13 mai 2006), pp 99-107Google Scholar
  109. Rottier S, Mordant C, Chambon P, Thevenet C (2005) Découverte de plus d’une centaine de sépultures du Néolithique moyen à Gurgy, les Noisats (Yonne). Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique de France 102:641–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Schoeninger MJ, DeNiro MJ (1984) Nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition of bone collagen from marine and terrestrial animals. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 48:625–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sidéra I (2003) De l'usage des produits de la chasse pour différencier des hommes. Fonctions votive et sociale de la chasse au Néolithique ancien et moyen du Bassin parisien. In: Chambon P, Leclerc J (eds) Les pratiques funéraires néolithiques avant 3500 av. J.-C. en France et dans les régions limitrophes, vol M33. Société préhistorique française, Table ronde de Saint-Germain-en-Laye (15-17 juin 2001), pp 91-98Google Scholar
  112. Smith BN, Epstein S (1971) Two categories of 13C/12C ratios for higher plants. Plant Physiol 47:380–384. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Szulc P, Seeman E, Delmas PD (2000) Biochemical measurements of bone turnover in children and adolescents. Osteoporosis Int 11:281–294. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Tanz N, Schmidt HL (2010) δ34S-Value Measurements in Food Origin Assignments and Sulfur Isotope Fractionations in Plants and Animals. J Agric Food Chem 58(5):3139–3146Google Scholar
  115. Thomas A (2011) Identités funéraires, variants biologiques et facteurs chronologiques : une nouvelle perception du contexte culturel et social du Cerny (Bassin parisien, 4700–4300 avant J.-C.). PhD Thesis, Université Bordeaux 1Google Scholar
  116. Thomas A (2014) Bioarchaeology of the middle Neolithic: evidence for archery among early European farmers. Am J Phys Anthropol 154:279–290. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Tieszen LL, Boutton TW, Tesdahl KG, Slade NA (1983) Fractionation and turnover of stable carbon isotopes in animal tissues : implications for δ13C analysis of diet. Oecologia 57:32–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Tresset A (1989) La Faune de l'enceinte néolithique de Barbuise Courtavant (Aube). In: Direction régionale des affaires culturelles de Champagne-Ardenne cdap, la Conservation du musée de Nogent-sur-Seine et l'Association régionale pour la protection et l'étude du patrimoine préhistorique (ed) Pré et Protohistoire de l'Aube, livret de l'exposition. Association régionale pour la protection et l'étude du patrimoine préhistorique (A.R.P.E.P.P.), Vertus, pp 135–138Google Scholar
  119. Tresset A (1997) L'approvisionnement carné Cerny dans le contexte néolithique du Bassin parisien. In: Constantin C, Mordant D, Simonin D (eds) La culture de Cerny. Nouvelle économie, nouvelle société au Néolithique. Actes du Colloque International de Nemours, 1994, vol 6. Mémoires du Musée de Préhistoire d'Ile-de-France, pp 299–314Google Scholar
  120. Valentin J (2003) Bone remodelling. In: Valentin J (ed) Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values., vol 32. vol 3–4, Ann. ICRP edn. Pergamon, pp 185–188.
  121. van Klinken GJ (1999) Bone collagen quality indicators for paleodietary and radiocarbon measurements. J Archaeol Sci 26:687–695Google Scholar
  122. van Klinken GJ, Richards MP, Hedges REM (2000) An overview of causes for stable isotopic variations in past European human populations: environmental, ecophysiological, and cultural effects. In: Ambrose SH, Katzenberg MA (eds) Biogeochemical approaches to paleodietary analysis, vol 5. Advances in Archaeological and Museum Science. Springer US, pp 39–63.
  123. Vigne JD et al (1989) Noyens-sur-Seine, site stratifié en milieu fluviatile: une étude multidisciplinaire intégrée. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 86:370–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Villotte S, Knüsel CJ (2014) “I sing of arms and of a man…”: medial epicondylosis and the sexual division of labour in prehistoric Europe. J Archaeol Sci 43:168–174. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Virginia R, Delwiche CC (1982) Natural 15N abundance of presumed N2-fixing and non-N2-fixing plants from selected ecosystems. Oecologia 54:317–325. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UMR 5199 – PACEA, Allée Geoffroy Saint HilaireUniversité de BordeauxPessac CedexFrance
  2. 2.Grupo de Investigación en Prehistoria IT-622-13 (UPV-EHU)/IKERBASQUE-Basque Foundation for ScienceVitoriaSpain
  3. 3.Department of Geological SciencesUniversity of Cape TownCape TownSouth Africa
  4. 4.CNRS-UMR 7206, Éco-anthropologie et Ethnobiologie, Musée de l’HommeParisFrance
  5. 5.Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, Minist Culture, LAMPEAAix-en-ProvenceFrance

Personalised recommendations