Advertisement

Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences

, Volume 11, Issue 12, pp 6377–6390 | Cite as

Economic anatomy of Rheidae and its implication for the archeological record

  • Miguel A. GiardinaEmail author
Original Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Avian Zooarchaeology: Prehistoric and Historical Insights

Abstract

The economic anatomy for Rheidae (Class: Birds) which includes the calculation of the Modified General Utility Index (MGUI) and its component indexes: Meat Utility Index (MUI), Marrow Index (MI), White Grease Index (WGI), and General Utility Index (GUI) are presented in this paper. In addition, I describe the methodology implemented to generate each index and discuss these results, applying them to an archeofaunal setting. The results show net values of meat utility, which are associated to the anatomical portions of the appendicular skeleton; a high grease index, which is associated to the axial portions (mainly pelvis, sacrum, and sternum); and a high marrow index in the tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsus. The correlation that exists between the Economic Utility Index and the Structural Bone Density Index shows an equifinality problem. Finally, I compare the Utility Index for other ratites built with the purpose of giving an analogy for all the species that constitute this group of birds.

Keywords

South American ratites Rheidae Economic anatomy 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was made possible by the collaboration of the Natural Resources Direction of the Mendoza Government, San Rafael Delegation, which provided the analyzed specimen, Rhea pennata. Gustavo Neme and Adolfo Gil advised and made critical readings of the manuscript. I would also like to thank the collaboration of Miriam Ayala and Adrián Atencio, who helped with the lab work. The review of an early English version by Clara Otaola, Fernando Franchetti, and Laura Steele were also of great importance for this work. Certainly, none of them are responsible for errors or omissions.

References

  1. Anderson A (1983) When all the moa-ovens grew cold: nine centuries of changing fortune for the Southern Maori. Heritage Books, Dunedin OtagoGoogle Scholar
  2. Belardi JB (1998) Hay choiques en la terraza. Información tafonómica y primeras implicaciones arqueofaunísticas para Patagonia. Arqueología 9:163–187Google Scholar
  3. Belardi JB, Gómez Otero J (1988) Anatomía económica del huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus): una contribución a la interpretación de las evidencias arqueológicas de su aprovechamiento en patagonia. Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia 26:195–207Google Scholar
  4. Binford LR (1978) Nunamiut Ethoarchaeology. Academia Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Binford LR (1981) Bones: ancient men and modern myths. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Borrero LA (1990) Fuego–Patagonian bone assemblages and the problem of communal guanaco hunting. In: Davis LB, Reeves BOK (eds) Hunters of the recent past. Unwin Hyman, London, pp 373–406Google Scholar
  7. Cabrera A (1958) Fitogeografía. En La Argentina Suma de Geografía 2:103–201Google Scholar
  8. Caviglia S, Figuerero Torres MJ (1976) Materiales faunísticos de la cueva “La Buitrera” (Dpto. UER Aike, Prov. de Santa Cruz). Relaciones de la Sociedad Argentina Antropología 10:315–319Google Scholar
  9. Cruz I, Elkin D (2003) Stuctural bone density of the lesser Rhea (Pterocnemia pennata) (Aves: Rheidae). Taphonomic and archaeological implications. J Archaeol Sci 30:37–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. del Hoyo J, Elliot A, Sargatal J (1992) Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks, Lynx, Barcelona, EspañaGoogle Scholar
  11. Diab MC (1998) Economic utility of the ringed seal (Phoca hispida): implications for Arctic archaeology. J Archaeol Sci 25:1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Drenowatz C (1995) The ratite encyclopedia. Ostrich, Emu, Rhea. San Antonio, Texas: Ratite Records IncorporatedGoogle Scholar
  13. Egeland CP, Byerly RM (2005) Applications of return rates to large mammal butchery and transport among hunter-gatherers and its implications for Plio-Pleistocene hominid carcass foraging and site use. Journal of Taphonomy 3:135–158Google Scholar
  14. Fernández PM (2000) Rendido a tus pies: acerca de la composición anatómica de los conjuntos arqueofaunísticos con restos de Rheiformes de Pampa y Patagonia. In: Desde el País de los Gigantes, Perspectivas arqueológicas en Patagonia. Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia Austral, Río Gallegos, pp 572–586Google Scholar
  15. Fernández PM, Cruz I, Elkin D (2001) Densidad mineral ósea de Pterocnemia pennata (Aves: Rheidae). Una herramienta para evaluar frecuencias anatómicas en sitios arqueológicos Relaciones de la Sociedad Argentina Antropología 26:243–260Google Scholar
  16. García PT (1976) Análisis de la composición en ácidos grasos de lípidos de depósito e intramusculares de dos guanacos de 33 y 85 kg. de peso vivo. Informe del Departamento de Tecnología de Carnes, INTA. Castelar, a solicitud del Departamento de Fauna Silvestre, M.A.G.M., Proyecto Provincial para el uso racional del guanaco. Provincia de Río NegroGoogle Scholar
  17. Garriz C, Urioste M, Delarada S, Della Croce M, Isequilla J, Albera H (2003) Ñandúes Argentinos (Rhea americana). I - rendimiento de res y derivados de faena. Trabajo presentado en el 1° Congreso Latinoamericano sobre Conservación y Cría de Ñandues, Buenos AiresGoogle Scholar
  18. Garvey J, Cochrane B, Field J, Boney C (2011) Modern emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) butchery, economic utility and analogues for the Australian archaeological record. Environ Archaeol 16(2):97–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jones K, Metcalfe D (1989) Bare bones archaeology: bone marrow index and efficiency. J Archaeol Sci 15:415–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kooyman BP (1990) Moa procurement: communal or individual hunting? In: Davis LB, Reeves BOK (eds) Hunters of the recent past. Unwin Hyman, London, pp 327–351Google Scholar
  21. Lupo KD (2001) On the archaeological resolution of body part transport patterns: an ethnoarchaeological example from East African hunter-gatherers. J Anthropol Archaeol 20:361–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lupo KD (2006) What explains the carcass field processing and transport decisions of contemporary hunter-gatherers? Measures of economic anatomy and zooarchaeological skeletal part representation. J Archaeol Method Theory 13(1):19–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lupo KD, Schmitt DN (2005) Small prey hunting technology and zooarchaeological measures of taxonomic diversity and abundance: Ethnoarchaeological evidence from Central African forest foragers. J Anthropol Archaeol 24:335–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lyman RL (1985) Bone frequencies: differential transport, in situ destruction and the MGUI. J Archaeol Sci 12:221–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lyman RL (1994) Vertebrate taphonomy. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mengoni Goñalons GL (1991) La llama y sus productos primarios. Arqueología 1:179–196Google Scholar
  27. Metcalfe D, Jones KT (1988) A reconsideration of animal body-part utility index. Am Antiq 53(3):486–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Metcalfe D, Barlow KR (1992) A model for exploring the optimal trade-off between field processing and transport. Am Anthropol 94:340–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Miotti L, Marchionni L (2009) Procesando huesos: entre la Etnografía y la Arqueología. In: Salemme M, Piana E, Alvarez M, Santiago F, Vázquez M, Mansur E (Eds). Arqueología de la Patagonia. Una mirada desde el confín del mundo, Utopía, Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego, pp 787–799Google Scholar
  30. Miotti L, Marchionni L (2012) Tools beyond stones: bone, a non-traditional raw material in continental Patagonia. In Choyke A, O’Connors S (Eds). From these bare bones: raw and worked osseous materials. Oxbow books. Oxford. pp116–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Miotti L, Marchionni L (2014) Autopodios de guanacos en sitios arqueológicos: equifinalidad entre lo palatable y lo preservado. Revista Chilena de Antropología 29:122–129Google Scholar
  32. Miotti L, Salemme M (1999) Biodiversity, taxonomic richness and specialists-generalists during late Pleistocene/early Holocene times in Pampa and Patagonia (Argentina, Southern South America). Quat Int 53-54:53–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Miotti L, Tonni E (1996) Reidos del sitio arqueológico AEP-1 de Piedra Museo y la meseta central de Santa Cruz y sus implicancias paleoambientales. Póster presentado en: 3ras. Jornadas de Arqueología de Patagonia. BarilocheGoogle Scholar
  34. Miotti L, Vázquez M, Hermo D (1999) Piedra Museo, un Yamnagoo pleistocénico de los colonizadores de la meseta de Santa Cruz. El estudio de la arqueofauna. In Soplando en el Viento. Acta de las III Jornadas de Arqueología de la Patagonia, Universidad Nacional del Comahue. Facultad de Humanidades. INALP (Eds.), Bariloche, pp. 113–136Google Scholar
  35. O’Connell JF, Hawkes K, Jones NB (1988) Hadza hunting, butchering, and bone transport and their archaeological implications. J Anthropol Res 44(2):113-161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. O’Connell JF, Hawkes K, Jones NB (1990) Reanalysis of large mammal body part transport among the Hadza. J Archaeol Sci 17:301–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Outram AK, Rowley-Conwy P (1998) Meat and marrow utility indices for horse (Equus). J Archaeol Sci 25:839–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Parodi J (1976) Evaluación cuali-cuantitativa de reses de guanacos (Lama guanicoe) de la Provincia de Río Negro, Argentina. Informe del Departamento de Tecnología de Carnes, INTA. Castelar, a solicitud del Departamento de Fauna Silvestre, M.A.G.M., Proyecto Provincial para el uso racional del guanaco. Provincia de Río NegroGoogle Scholar
  39. Reboreda JC, Fernández GJ (1997) The effect of sex and group size on individual vigilance in the greater Rhea, Rhea americana. Ethology 103:198–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Reboreda JC, Fernández GJ (2005) Estudios sobre ecología del comportamiento del Ñandú. Rhea americana. Publicaciones FUCEMA. www.fucema.org.ar/fucema/publicaciones/rhea.htm. Accessed 25 Oct 2005
  41. Salemme M, Frontini R (2011) The exploitation of RHEIDAE in Pampa and Patagonia (Argentina) as recorded by chroniclers, naturalists and voyagers. J Anthropol Archaeol 30:473–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sales J, Manero A, Navarro J (1996) Carcas and fabrication yields of lesser Rhea (Pterocnemia pennata). Report for National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA), Santa Cruz Experimental Station, Argentina MS.Google Scholar
  43. Savelle JM, Friesen MT, Lyman LR (1996) Derivation and application of an Otariid Utility Index. J Archaeol Sci 23:705–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Savelle JM, Friesen MT (1996) An Odontocete (Cetacea) Meat Utility Index. J Archaeol Sci 23:713–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Speth JD (1983) Energy source, protein metabolism, and hunter–gatherer subsistence strategies. J Anthropol Archaeol 2:1–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Speth JD (1992) Protein selection and avoidance strategies of contemporary and ancestral foragers: unresolved issues, in foraging strategies and natural diet of monkeys, apes and humans. Proceedings of a Royal Society Discussion Meeting held on 30 and 31 May 1991, in Whiten, A., Widdowson, E. M., (Eds.), Claredon Press, Oxoford. pp.105–110Google Scholar
  47. Tambussi C, Tonni EP (1985) Aves del sitio arqueológico Los Toldos, Cañadón de las Cuevas, Provincia de Santa Cruz (República Argentina). Ameghiniana 22(1–2):69–74Google Scholar
  48. Tívoli AM, Peréz AF (2009) Rendimiento económico del cauquén común (Chloephaga picta, Familia Anatidae). In: Salemme M, Santiago F, Álvarez M, Piana E, Vázquez M, Mansur ME (eds) Arqueología de Patagonia: una mirada desde el último confín, Editorial Utopías, Ushuaia, pp 853–864Google Scholar
  49. Tonni EP, Laza J (1980) Las aves de la fauna local de Paso Otero (Pleistoceno tardío) de la Provincia de Bs. As. Su significación ecológica; climática y zoogeográfica. Ameghiniana 17(4):313–322Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CONICET-IANIGLA, Museo de Historia Natural de San RafaelSan RafaelArgentina

Personalised recommendations