Associations of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with metabolic syndrome and its components in Korean children and adolescents: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2008–2014
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In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between single-gender Korean references for non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in childhood.
A total of 5742 Korean children aged 10–18 years who participated in a national survey were included. The subjects were classified into three groups based on single-gender non-HDL-C levels as follows: < 120 mg/dL (desirable), ≥ 120 and < 150 mg/dL (borderline high), and ≥ 150 mg/dL (high).
Males in the borderline high non-HDL-C group had odds ratios (ORs) of 2.86 (95% confidence interval, 2.30–3.56) for elevated triglycerides (TG), 1.73 (1.08–1.79) for reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and 1.73 (1.08–2.78) for MetS compared with males in the desirable non-HDL-C group after adjusting for covariates. Males in the high non-HDL-C group had ORs of 1.65 (1.14–2.41) for elevated blood pressure (BP), 6.21 (4.27–9.05) for elevated TG, and 3.29 (1.49–7.26) for MetS compared with males in the desirable non-HDL-C group. Females in the borderline high non-HDL-C group had ORs of 3.03 (2.43–3.76) for elevated TG, 1.63 (1.13–2.35) for reduced HDL-C, and 4.53 (2.47–8.31) for MetS compared with females in the desirable non-HDL-C group. Females in the high non-HDL-C group had ORs of 1.43 (1.00–2.04) for elevated BP, 6.36 (4.45–9.08) for elevated TG, and 7.64 (3.65–15.96) for MetS compared with females in the desirable non-HDL-C group.
Our results suggest that, in a Korean population, a non-HDL-C level of 120 mg/dL for males and 150 mg/dL for females is the threshold between borderline high and high risk for MetS.
KeywordsAdolescents Cardiovascular risk Children Metabolic syndrome Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
All authors were involved in drafting the article and critically revising it for important intellectual content, and all authors approved the final version to be submitted for publication. YSS has full access to all of the data pertaining to the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. YMK, SHK, and YSS participated in the writing of the paper. YMK and YSS participated in the research design. YSS provided expert advice regarding the statistical design. YSS participated in the analysis and interpretation of the data. YMK, SHK, and YSS participated in the data collection.
No funding was received in the current study.
Compliance with ethical standards
All procedures in studies involving human participants were performed in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Conflict of interest
Authors declare no conflict of interest.
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