Advertisement

Indoor radon activity concentrations and effective dose rates at houses in the Afyonkarahisar province of Turkey

  • Hüseyin Ali YalımEmail author
  • Ayla Gümüş
  • Duygu Açil
  • Rıdvan Ünal
  • Ahmet Yıldız
Original Paper
  • 8 Downloads

Abstract

An indoor radon activity concentration survey has been carried out at 46 houses in Afyonkarahisar province of Turkey using CR-39 passive nuclear track detectors four times during a 1-year period. The measured values ranged from 21 to 2494 Bq m−3, whereas the calculated average values were in the range of 33.75 and 1614.26 Bq m−3. On the other hand, the calculated annual geometric mean value was 186.50 ± 10.55 Bq m−3 and it was 136.07 ± 8.76 Bq m−3 when only the living areas of the houses considered. The corresponding annual effective dose rates were obtained to be in the range of 0.53 and 25.45 mSv year−1. The resulting annual effective dose equivalent calculated from the geometric mean was 2.94 ± 0.17 mSv year−1 for Afyonkarahisar province, while the annual effective dose in the living areas of the houses was obtained to be 2.15 ± 0.14 mSv year−1. According to the floor levels, the concentration value was found to be between 86.60 ± 7.80 Bq m−3 and 291.80 ± 14.60 Bq m−3. The present results show an exponential decrease with the distance from the soil having the correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.988.

Keywords

Indoor radon activity Annual effective dose Nuclear track detectors Floor levels Houses Afyonkarahisar 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are thankful to the director and professional staff of Health Physics Department at Sarayköy Nuclear Research and Training Center, for their valuable help in dosimetry evaluations.

Funding information

This study was funded by the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority [A5.H1.P1.06] and Afyon Kocatepe University Science Research Projects Coordination Unit with the grant number [12.FENBİL.14].

Compliance with ethical standards

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

12517_2020_5119_MOESM1_ESM.docx (286 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 285 kb)

References

  1. Abumurad KM, Kullab MK, Al-Bataina BA, Ismail AM, Lehlooh A (1994) Estimate of radon concentrations inside houses in some Jordanian regions. Mu’tah J Res Stud B9(5):9–21Google Scholar
  2. Al-Bataina BA, Ismail AM, Kullab MK, Abumurad KM, Mustafa H (1997) Radon measurements in different types of natural waters in Jordan. Radiat Meas 28:591–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baeza A, Navarro E, Roldán C, Ferrero JL, Juanes D, Coebacho JA, Guillén FJ (2003) Indoor radon levels in buildings in the autonomous community of Extremadura (Spain). Radiat Prot Dosim 103(3):263–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bochicchio F, Forastiere F, Abeni D, Rapiti E (1998) Epidemiologic studies on lung cancer and residential exposure to radon in Italy and other countries. Radiat Prot Dosim 78(1):33–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bochicchio F, Campos-Venuti G, Piermattei S et al (2005) Annual average and seasonal variations of residential radon concentra- tion for all the Italian Regions. Radiat Meas 40:686–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bossew P, Lettner H (2007) Investigations on indoor radon in Austria, part 1: seasonality of indoor radon concentration. J Environ Radioact 98(3):329–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Celik N, Poffijn A, Cevik U, Schepens L (2008) Indoor radon survey in dwelling of the Kars province, Turkey. Radiat Prot Dosim 128:432–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cross FT, Hartley NH, Hoffmann W (1985) Health effects and risk from radon in drinking water. Health Phys 48(5):649–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dolejs J, Hulka J (2003) The weekly measurement deviations of indoor radon concentration from the annual arithmetic mean. Radiat Prot Dosim 104:253–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Durrani SA, Bull RK (1987) Solid state nuclear track detection: principles, methods and applications. Pergamon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  11. Erkan Y, Bayhan H, Tolluoğlu Ü, Aydar E (1996) Afyon Yöresi Metamorfik ve Volkanik kayaçlarının Petrografik ve Jeokimyasal İncelenmesi. TÜBİTAK Proje Raporu. YBAG-0044/DPT Projesi Raporu, Ankara. (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  12. EURATOM (2013) Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM of 5 December 2013 laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionizing radiation. Official Journal of the European Union, L13/1, Article 74. COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 2013/59/EURATOMGoogle Scholar
  13. Field RW, Steck DJ, Smith BJ et al (2000) Residential gas exposure and lung cancer: the lowa radon lung cancer study. Am J Epidemiol 151(11):101–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fleischer RL, Price PB, Walker RM (1975) Nuclear tracks in solids, principles and applications. University of California Press, Berkeley, USAGoogle Scholar
  15. Fujiyoshi R, Sakamoto K, Imanishi T, Sumiyoshi T, Sawamura S, Vaupotic J, Kobal I (2006) Meteorological parameters controlling variability of 222Rn activity concentration in soil gas at a site in Sapporo, Japan. Sci Total Environ 370(1):224–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Henshaw DL, Eatough JP, Richardson RB (1990) Radon as a causative factor in the induction of myeloid leukaemia and other cancers in adults and children? Lancet 335:1008–1015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. IAEA (2017) Status of radon related activities in member states participating in technical cooperation projects in Europe. TECDOC Series, 1810, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  18. ICRP (1993) Protection against radon-222 at home and at work, ICRP Publication, Annals of the ICRP Publication 65, 23(2), Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1–262Google Scholar
  19. ICRP (2010) Lung cancer risk from radon and progeny and statement on radon. ICRP Publication 115. Ann. ICRP 40(1)Google Scholar
  20. ICRP (2014) Radiological protection against radon exposure. ICRP Publication 126, Ann. ICRP 43(3)Google Scholar
  21. Khan HA, Qureshi IE, Tufail M (1993) Passive dosimetry of radon and its daughters using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). Radiat Prot Dosim 46:149–170Google Scholar
  22. Khatibeh A, Ahmad N, Matiullah KM, Abumurad K, Kullab M, Al-Bataina B (1997) Measurements of indoor radon concentration levels in some cities of Jordan. Radiat Meas 28(1–6):589–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. King CY, Minissale A (1994) Seasonal variability of soilegas radon concentration in Central California. Radiat Meas 23(4):683–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kitto ME (2005) Interrelationship of indoor radon concentrations, soil-gas flux, and meteorological parameters. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 264(2):381–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Koçyiğit A, Deveci Ş (2007) A N–S-trending active extensional structure, the Şuhut (Afyon) graben: commencement age of the extensional neotectonic period in the Isparta Angle, SW Turkey. Turkish J Earth Sci 16:391–416Google Scholar
  26. Magalhães MH, Amaral EC, Sachett I, Rochedo ER (2003) 222Rn in Brazil: an outline of indoor and outdoor measurements. J Environ Radioact 67(2):131–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Manousakas M, Fouskas A, Papaefthymiou H, Koukouliou V, Siavalas G, Kritidis P (2010) Indoor radon measurements in a Greek city located in the vicinity of lignite-fired power plants. Radiat Meas 45:1060–1067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Metin S, Genç Ş, Bulut V (1987) Afyon ve dolayının jeolojisi. MTA derleme No:8103, 74s. Ankara. (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  29. Mihci M, Buyuksarac A, Aydemir A, Celebi N (2010) Indoor and outdoor radon concentration measurements in Sivas, Turkey, in comparison with geological setting. J Environ Radioact 101:952–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Moreno V, Baixeras C, Font L, Bach J (2008) Indoor radon levels and their dynamics in relation with the geological characteristics of La Garrotxa, Spain. Radiat Meas 43:1532–1540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Narasimhan TN, Tsang YW, Holman HY (1990) On the potential importance of transient air flow in advective radon entry into buildings. Geophys Res Let 17(6):821–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nikolaev VA, Ilic ́ R (1999) Etched track radiometers in radon measurements: a review. Radiat Meas 30:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Oikawa S, Kanno N, Sanada T, Ohashi N, Uesugi M, Sato K, Abukawa J, Higuchi H (2003) A nationwide survey of outdoor radon concentration in Japan. J Environ Radioact 65:203–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Qureshi AA, Kakar DM, Akram M, Khattak NU, Mehmood K, Jamil K, Khan HA (2000) Radon concentration in coal mines of Baluchistan, Pakistan. J Environ Radioact 48(2):203–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. RADOSYS (2011) RS_Man81: user’s manual. Radosys KftGoogle Scholar
  36. Robinson AL, Sextro RG (1997) Radon entry into buildings driven by atmospheric pressure fluctuations. Environ. Sci. Technol. 31(6):1742–1748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. TAEA (2012) Radon gas in the indoor environment. Technical report 2012/3, Ankara. (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  38. Ulug A, Karabulut MT, Celebi N (2004) Radon measurements with CR-39 track detectors at specific locations in Turkey. Nucl Technol Radiat Prot 19:46–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. UNSCEAR (2000a) Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. In: Report to the General Assembly with scientific annexes, vol. I. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. UNSCEAR (2000b) Effects and risks of ionizing radiations. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. UNSCEAR (2000c) Ionizing radiation: exposure due to natural radiation sources. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. UNSCEAR (2008) Effects of ionizing radiation. In: Annex E, sources-to-effects assessment for radon in homes and workplaces, vol. 2. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  43. Vaizoğlu SA, Güler Ç (1999) Indoor radon concentrations in Ankara dwellings. Indoor Built Environ 8:327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Washington JW, Rose AW (1990) Regional and temporal relations of radon in soil gas to soil temperature and moisture. Geophys Res Let 17(6):829–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. WHO (2009) Handbook on indoor radon: a public health perspective. WHO press, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  46. Yarar Y, Gunaydin T, Celebi N (2006) Determination of radon concentrations of the Dikili geothermal area in Western Turkey. Radiat Prot Dosim 118:78–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hüseyin Ali Yalım
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ayla Gümüş
    • 1
  • Duygu Açil
    • 1
  • Rıdvan Ünal
    • 2
  • Ahmet Yıldız
    • 3
  1. 1.Science and Literature Faculty, Physics DepartmentAfyon Kocatepe UniversityAfyonkarahisarTurkey
  2. 2.Health Services Vocational SchoolUşak UniversityUşakTurkey
  3. 3.Engineering Faculty, Geology EngineeringAfyon Kocatepe UniversityAfyonkarahisarTurkey

Personalised recommendations