Advertisement

Household solid waste sustainable management in the Khenifra region, Morocco

  • Driss ElhamdouniEmail author
  • Abdelkrim Arioua
  • Ismail Karaoui
  • Aba Baaddi
  • Kamal Ait Ouhamchich
Original Paper
  • 14 Downloads

Abstract

Khenifra region is facing a steady increase in household waste production in the last few years linked to population growth, consumption patterns, and living standard changes. This increase is making local authorities suffering in waste management when they are using traditional technics (collect and dumping in landfill). This study is aiming to characterize solid waste in this region for suitable management. Based on samples collected from trucks arriving to landfill site (4 km from Khenifra city), we used characterization method (MODECOM references) to distinguish between three fraction size particles (large, > 250 mm; medium, 250–80 mm; fine, < 80 mm) and 10 categories (organic materials, paper, cardboard, plastics …). This operation is repeated on 4 sectors in Khenifra region with a frequency of 2 campaigns in the season. A matter characterization has been done on the fine fraction (< 80 mm) to facilitate monitoring procedure and reducing environmental emissions. As results, during the two campaigns, the household waste is mainly composed by fermentable waste between 66 and 69%, and the rest is packaging waste (paper, paperboard, glass, textile, and plastic). The glass percentage is significantly varying on the two periods with a large difference between rural and urban sectors. The waste humidity is 67–85% successively in dry and wet season. The lower calorific value average is 408 kcal/kg caused by the humidity rate. Taking into consideration the biodegradable organic matter and moisture content, composting is the suitable solution for sustainable management, while the glass, paper, and plastics should be a part of recycling method.

Keywords

Characterization Household waste Khenifra region Composting 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are pleased to acknowledge the Khenifra region for providing the facilities for the research. The authors wish to thank the governor of Khenifra province and the president of the Atlas group. They also thank the staff of the company SEMGAT for their help and coordination.

References

  1. ADEME (MODECOM, 2007) Method of characterization of household waste. ADEME Editions. 1993Google Scholar
  2. Aloueimine S, Matejka G, Zurbrugg C and Sidi Mohamed ME (2005) Caractérisation des Ordures Ménagers à Nouakchott: Partie II : Résultats en Saison Sèche et en Saison Humide, article en Presse, 8 pages.Google Scholar
  3. Ben Ammar S (2006) Les enjeux de la caractérisation des déchets ménagers pour le choix des traitements adaptés dans les pays en développement: résultats de la caractérisation dans le grand Tunis: mise au point d’un méthode adaptée.Diss. Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, INPL.Google Scholar
  4. Chandana KV, Yuen STS, Pilapitiya S (2006) Municipal solid waste management in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka: problems, issues and challenges. Waste Manag 26(2006):920–930Google Scholar
  5. Charnay F (2005) Composting of the urban waste in the PED: elaboration of a methodological initiative for a long-lasting production of compost. Doctoral thesis N 56. University of Limoges.Google Scholar
  6. Cointreau-Levine S (1997) Occupational and environmental health issues of solid waste management. Int Occup Environ Med. St. Louis, 25 pages.Google Scholar
  7. El Maguiri A, Fawaz N, Souabi S, Idrissi L, Taleb A, Vincent R (2014) The physical characterization of household waste in the city of Mohammedia- Morocco-and the evaluation of the financial impact of its current management. Int J Eng Innov Technol 3(12):100–106Google Scholar
  8. Elhamdouni D, Ariou A, Karaoui I, Aba B, Ait Ouhamchi K (2018) Sustainable management of household garbage-status of citizens behavior and participation. A case study of Khenifra region (Morocco). Eur Sci J 14(20):61–78Google Scholar
  9. Elhamdouni D, Arioua A, Aba B, Elhmaidi A (2017) Geomatics tools and AHP method use for a suitable communal landfill site: case study of Khenifra region (Morocco). J Mater Environ Sci 8(10):3612–3624Google Scholar
  10. Elkadi A, Maatouk M, Raissouni M, Chafiki T (2016) Characterization of household and assimilated waste in the city of Tangier. Int J Innov Appl Stud 18(2):512–528Google Scholar
  11. GCPH ( 2014) Note on the first results of the General Census of the Population and the Habitat 2014, High Commissariat of Plans. Khenifra province, 30 pages.Google Scholar
  12. Hossain MDS (2002) Mechanics of compressibility and strength of solid waste in bioreactor landfills. Thesis, Faculty of North Carolina State university at Raleigh, Department of Civil Engineering, 199 pages.Google Scholar
  13. Kelly RJ (2002) Solid waste biodegradation enhancements and the evaluation of analytical methods used to predict waste stability. Thesis in Environmental Science and Engineering, Faculty of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 65 pages.Google Scholar
  14. Kodwo M, Kwasi O, Zsófia K, Bernard F, Moses YM ( 2015) Municipal solid waste characterization and quantification as a measure towards effective waste management in Ghana, Waste Manag, 46 (2015), 15-27.Google Scholar
  15. Koledzi E (2011) Valuation of the urban waste in the districts of Lomé (Togo): methodological approach for a sustainable production of compost. Diss. Limoges.Google Scholar
  16. Mbuligwe SE, Kassenga GR (2004) Feasibility and strategies for anaerobic digestion of solid waste for energy production in Dar Es Salaam city, Tanzania, Resources. Conserv Recy 42(2004):183–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mechadi M, Mbarki M, Chamsi Z (2016) Characterization of the recyclable fraction of solid waste of the Beni Mellal-Morocco-Villa Zone Territorial Commune. Eur Sci J 12(23):253–269Google Scholar
  18. Mettam GR, Adams LB (1999) How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ (eds) Introduction to the electronic age. E-Publishing Inc, New York, pp 281–304Google Scholar
  19. Ouigmane A, Boudouch O, Hasib A, Berkani M (2017) The size effect in the distribution of combustible components in the municipal solid waste produced in the summertime. Case of the city of Beni Mellal- Morocco. J Mater Environ Sci 8(8):2729–2737Google Scholar
  20. Sidi OuldAloueimine (2006) Méthodologie de caractérisation des déchets ménagers à Nouakchott (Mauritanie) : contribution à la gestion des déchets et outils d’aide à la décision.Diss. Limoges, 195 pages.Google Scholar
  21. Strunk W Jr, White EB (1979) The elements of style, 3rd edn. Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Tahraoui Douma N, Matejka G, Chambon S, Touil D (2012) Composition of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generated by the city of Chlef (Algeria). EnergyProcedia 18:762–771Google Scholar
  23. Tchobanoglous G, Theisen H and Vigil Samuel A (1993) Integrated solid waste management, engineering principles and management issues, McGraw-Hill International Editions, Civil Engineering Services, 978 pages.Google Scholar
  24. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA (2000) The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 163:51–59Google Scholar
  25. Wavrer P, Jourdan B, Courbet S (2009) Sampling and characterization of household waste: recent developments, Environment and technique, (FRA).nov. 2009.-pp. 28-32Google Scholar
  26. Youb O, Youb A, Bouabdessalam H (2014) Municipal waste management in the Algerian High Plateaus. EnergyProcedia 50:662–669Google Scholar
  27. Zaïri M, Ferchichi M, Ismaïl A, Jenayeh M, Hammami H (2004) Rehabilitation of Yahoudia dumping site, Tunisia. Waste Manag 24:1023–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Driss Elhamdouni
    • 1
    Email author
  • Abdelkrim Arioua
    • 1
  • Ismail Karaoui
    • 1
  • Aba Baaddi
    • 2
  • Kamal Ait Ouhamchich
    • 1
  1. 1.Water Resources Management and Valorisation and Remote Sensing Team, Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and TechnicUniversity Sultan Moulay SlimaneBeni MellalMorocco
  2. 2.Khenifra Province, Division of Local CommunitiesService of the Planning and EquipmentKhenifraMorocco

Personalised recommendations