Advertisement

Effect of grout in-filling, flaw thickness and inclination angle on strength and failure pattern of rock-like specimens with single flaw

  • Huilin LeEmail author
  • Shaorui Sun
  • Pinnaduwa Hewa Shanthikumar Wijayananda Kulatilake
  • Jihong Wei
Original Paper
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

The flaws that exist in rock masses may lead to crack propagation and instability of rock masses. Epoxy resin is often used to fill in flaws and to reinforce the fractured rock masses. Previous studies on the combined influence of grouting with epoxy resin and flaw geometry (flaw thickness and inclination angle) on the strength and failure pattern of rock masses are rare. In this research, rock-like specimens with an unfilled flaw having different geometries were fabricated and tested under uniaxial compressive load under both unfilled flaw and epoxy resin filled flaw conditions. The specimens had flaw thicknesses of 1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm and flaw inclination angles of 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90°. The experimental results reveal that for the specimens with an unfilled flaw the UCS drops in the range of 7–17% as the flaw thickness increases, but failure patterns do not change as the flaw thickness increases. UCS also dropped as the flaw inclination angle increased from 30° to 60° and then increased when the inclination angle increased from 60° to 90°. For the specimens with an unfilled flaw, the minimum UCS of about 62% of the intact UCS of the model material was obtained for 60° flaw inclination angle. For the specimens grouted with epoxy resin, as the flaw thickness increases, the UCS decreases in the range 16–21% when the flaw inclination angle is 30°, 45°, and 60°; but the UCS changes negligibly for the flaw inclination angles of 0° and 90°. For the specimens with a grouted flaw, the minimum UCS of about 74% of the intact UCS of the model material was obtained for flaw inclination angle of 60°. For grouted flaw, a maximum UCS almost equal to the intact UCS of the model material was obtained for 0° and 90°. The failure patterns of these grouted specimens are affected by both the flaw thickness and flaw inclination angle. The strengthening factor Ds is used to indicate the grouting effect; a larger Ds represents a stronger grouting effect. When α = 0° and 90°, Ds of a specimen with a larger flaw thickness is larger than that of a specimen with a smaller flaw thickness. When α = 30°, 45°, and 60°, the thickness has little influence on the Ds in this angle range. Ds of the specimens with the flaw inclination angle of 0° is much higher (22% to 43%) than that of the specimens with the flaw inclination angles of 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° (14% to 24%). For the specimens with the flaw thickness of 1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm, Ds increases slightly as α increases from 30° to 60°. The effect of grouting on the failure patterns and strength of the specimens has a close relationship with the flaw thickness and flaw inclination angle. The above conclusions are new findings, which can provide useful information for estimating the failure mode and grouting effect of fractured rock masses grouted with epoxy resin.

Keywords

Grout-infilled flaw Strength Failure pattern Laboratory tests 

Notes

Funding information

The authors appreciate the financial support received from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41102162 and 41102162) and the Postgraduate Research and Practice Innovation Program of Jiangsu Province for this research. The first author of this paper was supported by the Chinese Scholarship Council to do part of this research at the University of Arizona. This financial support is greatly appreciated.

References

  1. Anderson TL (2005) Fracture mechanics: fundamentals and applications, 3rd edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashby MF, Hallam SD (1986) The failure of brittle solids containing small cracks under compressive stress states. Acta Metall 34(3):497–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bobet A, Einstein HH (1998) Fracture coalescence in rock-type materials under uniaxial and biaxial compression. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 35(7):863–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brantberger M, Stille H, Eriksson M (2000) Controlling grout spreading in tunnel grouting—analyses and developments of the GIN-method. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 15(4):343–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cheng H, Zhou X, Zhu J, Qian Q (2016) The effects of crack openings on crack initiation, propagation and coalescence behavior in rocklike materials under uniaxial compression. Rock Mech Rock Eng 49:3481–3494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fan X, Kulatilake PHSW, Chen X (2015) Mechanical behavior of rock-like jointed blocks with multi-non-persistent joints under uniaxial loading: a particle mechanics approach. Eng Geol 190:17–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gehle C, Kutter HK (2003) Breakage and shear behaviour of intermittent rock joints. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 40:687–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jiang M, Zhang N, Shen Z, Chen H (2015) DEM analyses of crack propagation in flawed rock mass under uniaxial compression. Rock Soil Mech 11:3293–3300 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  9. Jin J, Cao P, Chen Y, Pu C, Mao D, Fan X (2017) Influence of single flaw on the failure process and energy mechanics of rock-like material. Comput Geotech 86:150–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kaushinger JL, Hankour R, Perry EB (1992) Method to estimate composition of jet grout bodies. In: Proceedings of ASCE conference grouting, soil improvement and geosynthetics, vol. 1, New Orleans, 194–205Google Scholar
  11. Kikuchi K, Mito Y, Adachi T, Hakoishi N (1995) In situ experimental study on grouting effects on mechanical properties of rock masses. Doboku Gakkai Ronbunshu 517:117–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kulatilake PHSW, Liang J, Gao H (2001) Experimental and numerical simulations of jointed rock block strength under uniaxial loading. J Eng Mech 127(12):1240–1247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kutzner C (1996) Grouting of rock and soil. Balkema, RotterdamGoogle Scholar
  14. Le H, Sun S, Kulatilake PHSW, Wei J (2018) Effect of grout on mechanical properties and cracking behavior of rock-like specimens containing single flaw under uniaxial compression. Int J Geomech.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GM.1943-5622.0001225
  15. Li Y, Chen L, Wang Y (2005) Experimental research on pre-cracked marble under compression. Int J Solids Struct 42:2505–2516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Li Y, Oh J, Mitra R, Hebblewhite B (2016) Experimental studies on the mechanical behaviour of rock joints with various openings. Rock Mech Rock Eng 49:837–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Liu Q, Lei G, Peng X, Lu C, Wei L (2018) Rheological characteristics of cement grout and its effect on mechanical properties of a rock fracture. Rock Mech Rock Eng 51:613–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lombardi G, Deere DU (1993) Grouting design and control using the GIN principle. Water Power Dam Constr 45(6):15–22Google Scholar
  19. Nonveiller E (1989) Grouting theory and practice. Academic Press, ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  20. Obert L, Duval WI (1967) Rock mechanics and the design of structures in rock. Wiley, New York, pp 146–178Google Scholar
  21. Sagong M, Bobet A (2002) Coalescence of multiple flaws in a rock-model material in uniaxial compression. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 39:229–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Salimian MH, Baghbanana A, Hashemolhosseini H, Dehghanipoodeh M, Norouzi S (2017) Effect of grouting on shear behavior of rock joint. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 98:159–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Shen SL, Wang ZF, Horpibulsuk S, Kim YH (2013) Jet grouting with a newly developed technology: Twin-Jet Method. Eng Geol 152(1):87–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Shroff AV, Shah DL (1999) Grouting technology in tunneling and dam construction. Balkema, RotterdamGoogle Scholar
  25. Stimpson B (1970) Modelling materials for engineering rock mechanics. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 7(1):77–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tirosh J, Catz E (1981) Mixed-mode fracture angle and fracture locus of materials subjected to compressive loading. Eng Fract Mech 14(l):27–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wong RHC, Chau KT (1998) Crack coalescence in a rock-like material containing two cracks. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 35(2):147–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Xu T, Ranjith PG, Wasantha PL, Zhao J, Tang CA, Zhu WC (2013) Influence of the geometry of partially-spanning joints on mechanical properties of rock in uniaxial compression. Eng Geol 167:134–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Yang SQ, Jing HW (2011) Strength failure and crack coalescence behavior of brittle sandstone samples containing a single fissure under uniaxial compression. Int J Fract 168(2):227–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yang SQ, Jiang YZ, Xu WY, Chen XQ (2008) Experimental investigation on strength and failure behavior of pre-cracked marble under conventional triaxial compression. Int J Solids Struct 45(17):4796–4819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Yang X, Kulatilake PHSW, Hongwen J, Yang S (2016) Numerical simulation of a jointed rock block mechanical behavior adjacent to an underground excavation and comparison with physical model test results. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 50:129–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Yin P, Wong RH, Chau KT (2014) Coalescence of two parallel preexisting surface cracks in granite. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 35(1):75–84Google Scholar
  33. Yin Q, Jing H, Zhu T (2016) Mechanical behavior and failure analysis of granite specimens containing two orthogonal fissures under uniaxial compression. Arab J Geosci 9:31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zhang L (2010) Estimating the strength of jointed rock masses. Rock Mech Rock Eng 43:391–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhao Y (2004) Mini-crack development from a cemented fracture in marble specimen under uniaxial compression. Chin J Rock Mech Eng 23:2504–2509 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  36. Zhao Z, Zhou D (2016) Mechanical properties and failure modes of rock samples with grout-infilled flaws: a particle mechanics modeling. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 34:702–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Huilin Le
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Shaorui Sun
    • 3
  • Pinnaduwa Hewa Shanthikumar Wijayananda Kulatilake
    • 4
    • 5
  • Jihong Wei
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geology EngineeringHohai UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Rock Mass Modeling and Computational Rock Mechanics LaboratoriesUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Geology EngineeringHohai UniversityNanjingChina
  4. 4.Department of Resources and Environmental EngineeringJiangxi University of Science and TechnologyGanzhouChina
  5. 5.Department of Mining and Geological EngineeringUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations