Advertisement

Assessing the suitability of water for irrigation using major physical parameters and ion chemistry: a study of the Churni River, India

  • Biplab Sarkar
  • Aznarul IslamEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

The aim of the present work is to evaluate the suitability of Churni River water for irrigation based on major physical and chemical parameters of 83 water samples collected during February 2011–December 2017 (one in every month) at two stations: Majdia and Ranaghat. The physical parameters measured are electrical conductivity (EC) (204–697 μS/cm for Majdia and 182–731 μS/cm for Ranaghat) and total dissolved solids (TDS) (40–526 mg/L for Majdia and 84–496 mg/L for Ranaghat). Besides, ion chemistry of four cations (concentration order: Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > K+) and four anions (HCO3 > CO32− > Cl > SO42−) depicts good ionic combination (ion balance error within 10%) and suitability of water for irrigation as indicated by the lower value of sodicity hazard (sodium absorption ratio (SAR) of 0.07–0.52 for Majdia and 0.05–0.52 for Ranaghat), alkalinity hazard (residual sodium carbonate of 2–10 for Majdia and 2–13 for Ranaghat) and permeability hazard (permeability index of 39–74 for Majdia and 40–139 for Ranaghat). Similarly, the compound ranking method locates the water samples of both the stations at 1.57 on a 1–3 scale when 1, 2 and 3 indicate good, permissible and unsuitable, respectively. Finally, ANOVA shows no significant difference in water quality except SAR between the upstream (Majdia) and downstream (Ranaghat) areas of the river.

Keywords

Electrical conductivity Total dissolved solids Sodicity hazard Alkalinity hazard Permeability hazard Churni River water 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are thankful to the anonymous reviewers and responsible editor for their valuable and constructive suggestions.

Funding information

This study was financially supported by the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) given to the first author of this paper (vide File number RFD/2017-18/ENVI/GEN/324) to carry out this research work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Akther S, Ahmed KR (2019) Water chemistry and water quality of a tidal river system in relation with riverbank land use pattern and regional climate in the southwest Bengal Delta of Bangladesh. Sustain Water Resour Manag 5:1259–1279.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40899-019-00308-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ali Moasheri, A., Tabatabai, S. M., Sarani, N., & Alai, Y. (2012). Estimation spatial distribution of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) in groundwater’s using ANN and geostatistics methods, the case of Birjand Plain, Iran. International Conference on Chemical, Ecology and Environmental Sciences (ICEES’ 2012), (pp. 123–129).Google Scholar
  3. Allison MA (1998) Historical changes in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta Front. Journal of Coastal Research 14(4):1269–1275Google Scholar
  4. Allison M, Kepple E (2001) Modern sediment supply to the lower delta plain of the Ganges-Brahmaputra River in Bangladesh. Geo-Mar Lett 21:66–74.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s003670100069 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Asadollahfardi G, Hemati A, Moradinejad S, Asadollahfardi R (2013) Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) prediction of the Chalghazi River using artificial neural network (ANN) Iran. Curr World Environ 8(2):169–178.  https://doi.org/10.12944/CWE.8.2.02 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baig Asadullah MW, Wanjuleb RV, Shindec HH (2018) Assessment of wastewater quality of Kham River for irrigation. Mater Today: Proceedings 5:113–119.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2017.11.061 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chapman, G., & Rudra, K. (2015). Time streams: history and rivers in Bengal. Centre for Archaeological Studies & Training, Eastern India.Google Scholar
  8. Costa JL, Aparicio VC (2015) Quality assessment of irrigation water under a combination of rain and irrigation. Agric Water Manag 159:299–306.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2015.06.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Das BC (2015) Socio-economic impact of a decaying river on fishermen: a case study of Taranipur Village, West Bengal. International Journal of Research in Management, Science & Technology 3(4):141-149Google Scholar
  10. Das SK, Chakrabarty D (2007) The use of fish community structure as a measure of ecological degradation: a case study in two tropical rivers of India. BioSystems 90:188–196.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystems.2006.08.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. DeCarlo KF, Shokri N (2014) Salinity effects on cracking morphology and dynamics in 3-D desiccating clays. Water Resour Res 50(4):3052–3072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dinka MO (2016) Quality composition and irrigation suitability of various surface water and groundwater sources at Matahara Plain. Water Res 43(4):677–689.  https://doi.org/10.1134/S0097807816040114 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Directorate of Census Operation (2011). Village and town wise primary census abstract, District census handbook, Nadia, Series 20 Part XII-B, Census of India.Google Scholar
  14. Directorate of Economics and Statistics (2018). Agricultural statistics at a glance, 2017, Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare, Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare, Government of India. https://eands.dacnet.nic.in/PDF/Agricultural%20Statistics%20at%20a%20Glance%202017.pdf. Accessed 4 July 2018
  15. Disli E (2017) Hydrochemical characteristics of surface and groundwater and suitability for drinking and agricultural use in the Upper Tigris River Basin, Diyarbakır–Batman, Turkey. Environ Earth Sci 76:1–23.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-017-6820-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Doneen LD (1964) Water quality for agriculture. Department of Irrigation. University of California, DavisGoogle Scholar
  17. Eaton EM (1950) Significance of carbonate in irrigation water. Soil Sci 69:12–133.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00010694-195002000-00004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fulazzaky MA (2010) Water quality evaluation system to assess the status and the suitability of the Citarum River water to different uses. Environ Monit Assess 168:669–684.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-1142-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gibbs RJ (1970) Mechanisms Controlling World Water Chemistry. Science 170 (3962):1088-1090Google Scholar
  20. Goodberd S (2003) Response of the Ganges dispersal system to climate change: a source-to sink-view since the last interstade. Sediment Geol 162:83–104.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0037-0738(03)00217-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Grim RE (1939) Relation of the composition to the properties of clays. J Am Ceram Soc 22(1–12):141–151.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1151-2916.1939.tb19440.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Guchhait SK, Islam A, Ghosh S, Das BC, Maji NK (2016) Role of hydrological regime and flood plain sediments in channel instability of the Bhagirathi River, Ganga Brahmaputra Delta, India. Phys Geogr 37(6):1–35.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02723646.2016.1230986 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hosoi Y, Kido Y, Nagira H, Yoshida H, Bouda Y (1996) Analysis of water pollution and evaluation of purification measures in an urban river basin. Waf Sci Tec 34(12):33–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Huong NT, Li MO, Higashi T, Kanayama M (2008) Assessment of the water quality of two rivers in Hanoi City and its suitability for irrigation water. Paddy Water Environ 6:257–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ishaku JM, Ahmed AS, Abubaka MA (2011) Assessment of groundwater quality using chemical indices and GIS mapping in Jada area, Northeastern Nigeria. J Earth Sci Geotech Eng 1(1):35–60Google Scholar
  26. Islam A, Guchhait SK (2017a) Analysing the influence of Farakka Barrage Project on channel dynamics and meander geometry of Bhagirathi River of West Bengal, India. Arab J Geosci 10(11):245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Islam A, Guchhait SK (2017b) Search for social justice for the victims of erosion hazard along the banks of river Bhagirathi by hydraulic control: a case study of West Bengal, India. Environ Dev Sustain 19(2):459.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-015-9739-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Islam A, Guchhait SK (2018) Analysis of social and psychological terrain of bank erosion victims: a study along the Bhagirathi River, West Bengal, India. Chin Geogr Sci 28:1009–1026.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11769-018-0937-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kelly WP (1951) Alkali soils—their formation, properties and reclamation. Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Khaki M, Yusoff I, Ismalami N (2015) Application of the artificial neural network and neuro fuzzy system for assessment of groundwater quality. Clean - Soil, Air, Water 43(4):551–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Khan R, Israili SH, Ahmad H, Mohan A (2005) Heavy metal pollution assessment in surface water bodies and its suitability for irrigation around the Neyveli lignite mines and associated industrial complex, Tamil Nadu, India. Mine Water Environ 24:155–161.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10230-005-0087-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kuehl S, Levy ML, Moore WS, Allison M (1997) Subaqueous delta of the Ganges-Brahmaputra River system. Mar Geol 144:81–96.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-3227(97)00075-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kumar SK, Bharani R, Magesh S, Godson PS, Chandrasekar N (2014) Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality appraisal of part of south Chennai coastal aquifers, Tamil Nadu, India using WQI and fuzzy logic method. Appl Water Sci 4:341–350.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-013-0148-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kumarasamy P, Dahms H, Jeon H, Rajendran A, James RA (2013) Irrigation water quality assessment—an example from the Tamiraparani River, Southern India. Arab J Geosci 7:5209–5220.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-013-1146-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Majumdar SC (1941) Rivers of Bengal Delta. Bengal Government Press, KolkataGoogle Scholar
  36. Majumder, D. (1978). West Bengal District Gazetters Nadia. Govt. of W. B.Google Scholar
  37. Nag SK, Das S (2014) Quality assessment of groundwater with special emphasis on irrigation and domestic suitability in Suri, I & II Blocks, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India. Am J Water Resour 2(4):81–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ozaki H, Co TH, Le AK, Pham VN, Nguyen VB, Tarao M et al (2014) Human factors and tidal influences on water quality of an urban river in Can Tho, a major city of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Environ Monit Assess 186:845–858.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-013-3421-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Parua P (2010) The Ganga: water use in the Indian subcontinent. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  40. Piper AM (1944) A geographic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water analysis. Trans Am Geophys Union 25:914–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rao PV, Rao SA, Rao NS (2015) Suitability of groundwater quality for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes in the Western Delta Region of the river Godavari, Andhra Pradesh. J Geol Soc India 86:181–190.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12594-015-0297-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ravikumar P, Somashekar RK, Prakash K (2015) A comparative study on usage of Durov and Piper diagrams to interpret hydrochemical processes in groundwater from SRLIS river basin, Karnataka, India. Elixir Earth Sci 80:31073–31077Google Scholar
  43. Reddy KS (2013) Assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation of Bhaskar Rao Kunta watershed, Nalgonda District, India. Int J Water Resour Environ Eng 5(7):418–425.  https://doi.org/10.5897/IJWREE2012.0375 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Richards, L. A. (1954). Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. USDA hand book.Google Scholar
  45. Rudra K (2010) Dynamics of the Ganga in West Bengal, India (1764–2007)—implications for science-policy interaction. Quat Int 227:161–169.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2009.10.043 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rudra K (2011). The encroaching Ganga and social conflict: the case of West Bengal, India. Kolkata.Google Scholar
  47. Rudra K (2014) Changing river courses in the western part of the Ganga Brahmaputra Delta. Geomorphology 227:87–100.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2014.05.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rusydi AF (2018) Correlation between conductivity and total dissolved solid in various type of water: a review. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science. IOP. 118:012019.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/118/1/012019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sadick A, Prince Charles Asante PC, Dugan E, Asaana J (2017) Correlation analysis of irrigation water quality parameters from Lake Bosomtwe in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. SCIREA J Agric 2:2Google Scholar
  50. Sarah P (2004) Soil sodium and potassium adsorption ratio along a Mediterranean–arid transect. J Arid Environ 59:731–741.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2004.02.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Satyanarayana E, Ratnakar D, Muralidhar M (2016) Major ion chemistry of groundwater and surface water in parts of Mulugu-Venkatapur Mandal, Warangal District, Telangana State, India. Hydrol Current Res 7(3):253.  https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7587.1000253 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Shakir E, Zahraw Z, Al-Obaidy AH (2017) Environmental and health risks associated with reuse of wastewater for irrigation. Egypt J Pet 26:95–102.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpe.2016.01.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Shammi M, Rahman R, Rahman MM, Moniruzzaman M, Bodrud-Doza M, Karmakar B, Uddin M (2016) Assessment of salinity hazard in existing water resources for irrigation and potentiality of conjunctive uses: a case report from Gopalganj District, Bangladesh. Sustain Water Resour Manag 2:369–378.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40899-016-0064-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Silva EL (2004) Quality of irrigation water in Sri Lanka—status and trends. Asian J Wat Environ Pollution 1(1–2):5–12Google Scholar
  55. Singh AK, Kumar SR (2015) Quality assessment of groundwater for drinking and irrigation use in semi-urban area of Tripura, India. Eco Env & Cons 21(1):97–108Google Scholar
  56. Smith CJ, Oster JD, Sposito G (2014) Potassium and magnesium in irrigation water quality assessment. Agric Water Manag 157:59–64.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2014.09.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Todd DK (1959) Groundwater hydrology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  58. Wilcox LV (1955). Classification and use of irrigation water. USDA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyAliah UniversityKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations