Assessing the suitability of water for irrigation using major physical parameters and ion chemistry: a study of the Churni River, India

  • Biplab Sarkar
  • Aznarul IslamEmail author
Original Paper


The aim of the present work is to evaluate the suitability of Churni River water for irrigation based on major physical and chemical parameters of 83 water samples collected during February 2011–December 2017 (one in every month) at two stations: Majdia and Ranaghat. The physical parameters measured are electrical conductivity (EC) (204–697 μS/cm for Majdia and 182–731 μS/cm for Ranaghat) and total dissolved solids (TDS) (40–526 mg/L for Majdia and 84–496 mg/L for Ranaghat). Besides, ion chemistry of four cations (concentration order: Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > K+) and four anions (HCO3 > CO32− > Cl > SO42−) depicts good ionic combination (ion balance error within 10%) and suitability of water for irrigation as indicated by the lower value of sodicity hazard (sodium absorption ratio (SAR) of 0.07–0.52 for Majdia and 0.05–0.52 for Ranaghat), alkalinity hazard (residual sodium carbonate of 2–10 for Majdia and 2–13 for Ranaghat) and permeability hazard (permeability index of 39–74 for Majdia and 40–139 for Ranaghat). Similarly, the compound ranking method locates the water samples of both the stations at 1.57 on a 1–3 scale when 1, 2 and 3 indicate good, permissible and unsuitable, respectively. Finally, ANOVA shows no significant difference in water quality except SAR between the upstream (Majdia) and downstream (Ranaghat) areas of the river.


Electrical conductivity Total dissolved solids Sodicity hazard Alkalinity hazard Permeability hazard Churni River water 



We are thankful to the anonymous reviewers and responsible editor for their valuable and constructive suggestions.

Funding information

This study was financially supported by the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) given to the first author of this paper (vide File number RFD/2017-18/ENVI/GEN/324) to carry out this research work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyAliah UniversityKolkataIndia

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