Arabian Journal of Geosciences

, 12:582 | Cite as

Trace element occurrence and distribution problems in the irrigation water at El-Minia district, north upper Egypt

  • Moustafa Gamal SnousyEmail author
  • Esam Ismail
  • Rafat Zaki
S. I. Geology of Africa
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. New Advances and Research Results on the Geology of Africa


Water pollution by trace elements is a global problem, especially in developing countries. To understand the complex behavior of trace elements dynamics in aquatic systems, 45 water samples were collected from River Nile, Bahr Youssefi canal, El Ibrahemia canal, El Sabakha canal, and El Moheet drain at El-Minia district in northern Upper Egypt. The detected heavy metals were B, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Co, Hg, Ni, Al, Pb, Cd, Cr, Se, and As. Also, the samples were subjected to other water quality parameter measurements such as dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), alkalinity, oil and grease, cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+), anions (HCO3, SO42−, and Cl), and minor constituents (NH4, NO3, and PO4). Overall, the irrigation water in El-Minia district is principally affected by the agricultural, industrial, and sewage input.


Water resources Water quality Health risk Heavy metals Pollution Upper Egypt 



The authors appreciate the Staff Member of the Central Health Laboratories, Abdein, Cairo, Egypt, for their help during analyses.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Moustafa Gamal Snousy
    • 1
    Email author
  • Esam Ismail
    • 2
  • Rafat Zaki
    • 2
  1. 1.Egyptian Petroleum Sector, Petrotrade CoNasr CityEgypt
  2. 2.Geology Department, Faculty of ScienceMinia UniversityEl-MiniaEgypt

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