Advertisement

Arabian Journal of Geosciences

, 12:581 | Cite as

Electrical properties speculation of contamination by water and gasoline on sand and clay composite

  • Mohamed M. GomaaEmail author
  • Mohamed M. M. Elnasharty
  • Enzo Rizzo
Original Paper
  • 35 Downloads

Abstract

Effects of temperature, frequency, and molarity on electrical conductivity have been studied for sand-clay samples contaminated by water and gasoline. Electrical properties change according to frequency, contaminant type, and structure of components at the sample. A comparison was performed for these contaminated sand-clay samples. Changes of dielectric constant (∈′), conductivity (σ), and complex impedance with frequency (0.1 Hz 2×107 Hz), with different contaminant concentration (at constant room temperature ~ 21 °C), have been studied. The sand-clay samples were mutually wetted gradually using gasoline and distilled water. Then, electrical properties were measured sequentially. Water is 30a conductive liquid and the contaminant gasoline is an insulator. The experimental results indicate that conductivity of samples increases with increase of water concentration while with the additions of the contaminant gasoline, the sample conductivity decreases. The permittivity decreases with reduction of conductive links between grains and with the progressive increase of frequency. The conduction of electrical conductivity, commonly, increases with increase of connectivity between different links between grains. Also, conduction increases with progressive increase of frequency. Comparison of both outcomes from lab electrical measurements gives 30a speculation about the picture in the field.

Keywords

Electrical properties Conductivity Water saturation Gasoline saturation Permittivity Frequency 

References

  1. Abou El-Anwar E, Gomaa MM (2013) Electrical properties and geochemistry of carbonate rocks from the Qasr El-Sagha formation, El-Faiyum, Egypt. Geophys Prospect 61:630–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abou El-Anwar E, Gomaa MM (2016) Electrical, mineralogical, geochemical and provenance of Cretaceous black shales, Red Sea Coast, Egypt. Egypt J Pet 25:323–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barabanova EV, Malyshkina OV, Ivanova AI, Posadova EM, Zaborovskiy KM, Daineko AV (2013) 012026) Effect of porosity on the electrical properties of PZT ceramics. Mater Sci Eng 49.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/49/1/012026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bussian AE (1983) Electrical conductance in a porous medium. Geophys. 48(9):1258–1268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chelidze TL (1979) A Percolation model of the electrical conductivity of minerals, Izvestiya. Earth Phys 15(11):849–850Google Scholar
  6. Chelidze T, Guéguen Y (1999) Electrical spectroscopy of porous rocks: a review -I. Theoretical models. Geophys J Int 137:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chelidze T, Guéguen Y, Ruffet C (1999) Electrical spectroscopy of porous rocks: a review -II. Experimental results and interpretation. Geophys J Int 137:16–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chew WC, Sen PN (1982) Dielectric enhancement due to electrochemical double layer: thin double layer approximation. J Chem Phys 77(9):4683–4693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chinh PD (2000) Electrical properties of sedentary rocks having interconnected water- saturated pore spaces. Geophysics 65(4):1093–1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dias CA (2000) Development in a model to describe low- frequency electrical polarization of rocks. Geophys. 65(2):437–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Garrouch AA, Sharma MM (1994) The influence of clay content, Salinity, Stress, and wettability on the dielectric properties of brine- saturated rocks: 10 Hz to 10 MHz. Geophys. 59(6):909–917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gomaa MM (2006) Interpretation of electrical properties for humid and saturated hematitic sandstone sample, presented at the 68th Conference and Exhibition incorporating SPE Europe: European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers (EAGE), Oral H021, Session “Gravity, Magnetics, Mining and Geothermal”, Opportunities in Mature Areas 4, 12- 15 June, Vienna, Austria, pp 2182–2186Google Scholar
  13. Gomaa MM (2008) Relation between electric properties and water saturation for hematitic sandstone with frequency. Ann Geophys 51(5/6):801–811Google Scholar
  14. Gomaa MM (2009) Saturation effect on electrical properties of hematitic sandstone in the audio frequency range using non-polarizing electrodes. Geophys Prospect 57:1091–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gomaa MM (2013) Forward and inverse modeling of the electrical properties of magnetite intruded by magma, Egypt. Geophys J Int 194(3):1527–1540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gomaa MM, Abou El-Anwar E (2015) Electrical and geochemical properties of tufa deposits as related to mineral composition in South Western Desert, Egypt. J Geophys Eng 12(3):292–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gomaa MM, Abou El-Anwar E (2017) Electrical, mineralogical, and geochemical properties of Um Gheig and Um Bogma Formations, Egypt, Carbonates and Evaporites, pp 1–14Google Scholar
  18. Gomaa MM, Alikaj P (2009) Effect of electrode contact impedance on a. c. electrical properties of wet hematite sample. Mar Geophys Res 30(4):265–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gomaa MM, Elsayed RM (2006) Thermal effect of magma intrusion on electrical properties of magnetic rocks from Hamamat Sediments, NE Desert, Egypt, presented at the 68th Conference and Exhibition incorporating SPE Europe: European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers (EAGE), Poster P328, Session “ Gravity, Magnetics, Mining and Geothermal”, Opportunities in Mature Areas 6, 12- 15 June, Vienna, Austria, pp 3550–3555Google Scholar
  20. Gomaa MM, Elsayed RM (2009) Thermal effect of magma intrusion on electrical properties of magnetic rocks from Hamamat Sediments, NE Desert, Egypt. Geophys Prospect 57(1):141–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gomaa MM, Kassab M (2016) Pseudo random renormalization group forward and inverse modeling of the electrical properties of some carbonate rocks. J Appl Geophys 135:144–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gomaa MM, Kassab M (2017) Forward and inverse modelling of electrical properties of some sandstone rocks using renormalisation group method, Near Surface Geophysics. Vol. 15(5):487–498Google Scholar
  23. Gomaa MM, Hussain SA, El-Diwany EA, Bayoumi AE, Ghobashy MM (2000) Modeling of A. C. electrical properties of humid sand and the effect of water content, Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG), International Exposition and 70th Annual Meeting, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 19(1), pp 1850–1853Google Scholar
  24. Gomaa MM, Shaltout A, Boshta M (2009) 2009, Electrical properties and mineralogical investigation of Egyptian iron ore deposits. Mater Chem Phys 114(1):313–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gomaa MM, Kassab M, El-Sayed NA (2015a) Study of petrographical and electrical properties of some Jurassic carbonate rocks, north Sinai, Egypt. Egypt J Pet 24(3):343–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gomaa MM, Kassab M, El-Sayed NA (2015b) Study of electrical properties and petrography for carbonate rocks in the Jurassic Formations: Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. Arab J Geosci 8(7):4627–4639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gomaa MM, Metwally H, Melegy A (2018) Effect of concentration of salts on electrical properties of sediments, Lake Quaroun, Fayium, Egypt, Carbonates and Evaporites, pp 1–9Google Scholar
  28. Hill RM, Jonscher AK (1983) The dielectric behavior of condensed matter and its many- body interpretation. Contemp Phys 24(1):75–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jonscher AK (1973) Carrier and matrix losses in solid dielectrics. In: 1972 Annual report conference on electrical insulation and dielectric phenomena. Natn: Academy of Sci., Washington D. C., pp 418–425Google Scholar
  30. Jonscher AK (1975) The interpretation of non- dielectric admittance and impedance diagrams. Phys Status Solidi 32(a):665–675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jonscher AK (1977) Review article the universal dielectric response. Nature 267:673–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jonscher AK (1999) Review article dielectric relaxation in solids. J Phys D Appl Phys 32:R57–R70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kassab M, Gomaa MM, Lala A (2017) Relationships between electrical properties and petrography of El-Maghara sandstone formations, Egypt. NRIAG J Astron Geophys 6:162–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Khalafalla AS, Maegley WJ (1973) Low- frequency impedance parameters of basalt, Granite, and Quartzite. Geophys. 38(1):68–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Knight RJ, Endres AL (1990) A new concept in modeling the dielectric response of sandstones: Defining a wetted rock and bulk water system. Geophysics 55:586–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Knight RJ, Abad A (1995) Rock/water interaction in dielectric properties: experiments with hydrophobic sandstones. Geophys. 60(2):431–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Knight RJ, Nur A (1987) The permittivity of sandstones, 60 kHz to 4 MHz. Geophys:644–654Google Scholar
  38. Last BJ, Thouless DJ (1971) Percolation theory and electrical conductivity. Phys Rev Lett 27(25):1719–1721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Leroy P, Revil A, Kemna A, Cosenza P, Ghorbani A (2008) Complex conductivity of water-saturated packs of glass beads. J Colloid Interface Sci 321(1):103–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Levitskaya TM (1984) Dielectrical relaxation in rock, Izvestiya. Earth Phys 20(10):777–780Google Scholar
  41. Levitskaya TM, Sternberg BK (1996a) Polarization processes in rocks 1. Complex dielectric permittivity method. Radio Sci 31(4):755–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Levitskaya TM, Sternberg BK (1996b) Polarization processes in rocks 2. Complex dielectric permittivity method. Radio Sci 31(4):781–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mendelson KS, Cohen MH (1982) The effect of grain anisotropy on the electrical properties of sedimentary rocks. Geophys. 47(2):257–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Minaw F, Hanna B, Mikhail FN (1972) Relation between the permittivity and the dielectric loss for some Egyptian rocks. Egypt J Geol 16(2):293–301Google Scholar
  45. Olhoeft GR (1976) Electrical properties of rocks. In: Sterns RGJ (ed) the physics and chemistry of minerals and rocks. Wiley, New York, pp 261–278Google Scholar
  46. Olhoeft GR (1977) Electrical properties of natural clay permafrost. Can J Earth Sci 14:16–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Olhoeft GR (1980) In: Touloukian YS, Judd WR, Roy RF (eds) Electrical properties of rocks: in Physical properties of rocks and minerals. McGrow- Hill Book Co, New York, pp 257–330Google Scholar
  48. Olhoeft GR (1985) Low-frequency electrical properties. Geophys. 50(12):2492–2503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sen PN (1981) Dielectric anomaly in inhomogeneous materials with application to sedimentary rocks. Appl Phys Lett 39(8):667–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sen PN (1984) Short note: grain shape effects on dielectric and electrical properties of rocks. Geophys. 49(5):586–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Shaltout AA, Gomaa MM, Wahbe M (2012) Utilization of standardless analysis algorithms using WDXRF and XRD for Egyptian Iron Ores identification. X-Ray Spectrom 41:355–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Song Y, Noh TW, Lee S, Gaines R (1986) Experimental study of the three-dimensional ac conductivity and permittivity of a conductor- insulator composite near the percolation threshold. Phys Rev B 33(2):904–908CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geophysical Sciences DepartmentNational Research CentreCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Microwave Physics and Dielectrics Department, Physics DivisionNational Research CentreGizaEgypt
  3. 3.Istituto di Metodologie per l’Analisi Ambientale-Hydrogeosite LaboratoryNational Research Council (CNR-IMAA)TitoItaly

Personalised recommendations