Advertisement

Natural radioactivity in soils around mega coal-fired cement factory in Nigeria and its implications on human health and environment

  • Matthew Tikpangi KoloEmail author
  • Mayeen Uddin Khandaker
  • Hauwau Kulu Shuaibu
Review Paper
  • 27 Downloads

Abstract

Cement industry is one of the anthropogenic activities capable of mobilizing and propagating naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in human environment to levels that may become detrimental to human health. A pilot survey of radiological implications of a mega cement factory (AshakaCem), north-eastern Nigeria, on human health and the environment was conducted using high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometric technique. Average activity concentrations for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the soil samples were found to be 7.41 ± 0.44, 16.27 ± 0.84 and 196.11 ± 9.08 Bq kg−1, respectively. These values were lower than the world mean values documented by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Calculated radiation hazard parameters associated with the studied soil samples showed mean air absorbed dose rate of 21.43 nGy h−1, with attendant annual effective dose of 0.03 mSv y−1 and average excess lifetime cancer risk of 0.9 × 10−4. Statistical analysis revealed strong relationship between calculated hazard parameters and the investigated natural radionuclides in the studied soil samples and confirmed that 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were major contributors to radiation dose. Results obtained from this study fall within acceptable limits provided for human safety and environmental protection. Thus, the operations of AshakaCem did not provide any significant radiological risk to workers nor pose any immediate radiological threat to the environment.

Keywords

Natural radioactivity Gamma dose rate Excess lifetime cancer risk Statistical analysis AshakaCem North-eastern Nigeria 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the support of Radiation Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Malaya, Malaysia, in providing full equipment and conducive environment for this research.

Funding information

This research was fully supported by the Federal Government of Nigeria through the Tertiary education trust fund (TetFund).

References

  1. Absar N, Rahman MM, Kamal M, Siddique N, Chowdhury MI (2014) Natural and anthropogenic radioactivity levels and the associated radiation hazard in the soil of Oodalia Tea Estate in the hilly region of Fatickchari in Chittagong, Bangladesh. J Radiat Res: 55(6) 1075–1080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Addo M, Darko E, Gordon C, Davor P, Gbadago J, Faanu A, Kpeglo D, Ameyaw F (2014) Assessment of airborne 238 U and 232 Th exposure and dust load impact on people living in the vicinity of a cement factory in Ghana. Radiat Prot Environ 37(3):120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amin YM, Mahat R, Nor R, Khandaker MU, Takleef GH, Bradley D (2013a) The presence of natural radioactivity and 137Cs in the South China Sea bordering peninsular Malaysia. Radiat Prot Dosim 156(4):475–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amin YM, Khandaker MU, Shyen AKS, Mahat RH, Nor RM, Bradley DA (2013b) Radionuclide emissions from a coal-fired power plant. Appl Radiat Isot 80(2013):109–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Asaduzzaman K, Khandaker MU, Amin YM, Bradley DA, Mahat RH, Nor RM (2014) Soil-to-root vegetable transfer factors for 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 88Y in Malaysia. J Environ Radioact 135:120–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beretka J, Mathew P (1985) Natural radioactivity of Australian building materials, industrial wastes and by-products. Health Phys 48(1):87–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chandrasekaran A, Ravisankar R, Senthilkumar G, Thillaivelavan K, Dhinakaran B, Vijayagopal P, Bramha SN, Venkatraman B (2014) Spatial distribution and lifetime cancer risk due to gamma radioactivity in Yelagiri Hills, Tamilnadu, India. Egypt J Basic Appl Sci 1(1):38–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Charro E, Pena V (2013) Environmental impact of natural radionuclides from a coal-fired power plant in Spain. Radiat Prot Dosim 153(4):485–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen C, Huang C, Yeh C (2001) Introduction to natural background radiation in Taiwan. Phys Bimonthly 23(3):441–443Google Scholar
  10. El-Taher A, Al-Zahrani J (2014) Radioactivity measurements and radiation dose assessments in soil of Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. Indian J Pure Appl Phys 52(3):147–154Google Scholar
  11. El Mamoney M, Khater AE (2004) Environmental characterization and radio-ecological impacts of non-nuclear industries on the Red Sea coast. J Environ Radioact 73(2):151–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. FUTMinna (2019) Map archives, Remote sensing and GIS laboratory, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. UnpublishedGoogle Scholar
  13. Gbadebo A, Amos A (2010) Assessment of radionuclide pollutants in bedrocks and soils from Ewekoro cement factory, southwest Nigeria. Asian J Applied Sci 3:135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hussain H, Ali A (2014) Natural radioactive survey around Kufa cement factory. J Kufa-Phys 6(1):64–73Google Scholar
  15. Isinkaye OM, Jibiri NN, Olomide AA (2015) Radiological health assessment of natural radioactivity in the vicinity of Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria. J Medi Phys 40(1):52–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jibiri N, Isinkaye M, Momoh H (2014) Assessment of radiation exposure levels at Alaba e-waste dumpsite in comparison with municipal waste dumpsites in southwest Nigeria. J Radiat Res Appl Sci 7(4):536–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Khandaker MU, Jojo PJ, Kassim HA, Amin YM (2012) Radiometric analysis of construction materials using HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry. Radiat Prot Dosim 152(1–3):33–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Khandaker MU, Heffny NA, Amin YM, Bradley DA (2019a) Elevated concentration of radioactive potassium in edible algae cultivated in Malaysian seas and estimation of ingestion dose to humans. Algal Res 38:101386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Khandaker MU, Uwatse OB, Shamsul Khairi KA, Faruque MRI, Bradley DA (2019b) Terrestrial radionuclides in surface (dam) water and concomitant dose in Metropolitan Kuala Lumpur. Radiat Prot Dosim:1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncz018
  20. Kolo MT, Aziz SA, Khandaker MU, Asaduzzaman K, Amin YM (2015) Evaluation of radiological risks due to natural radioactivity around Lynas advanced material plant environment, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 22(17):13127–13136.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4577-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu G, Luo Q, Ding M, Feng J (2015) Natural radionuclides in soil near a coal-fired power plant in the high background radiation area, South China. Environ Monit Assess 187(6):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lu X, Liu W, Zhao C, Chen C (2013) Environmental assessment of heavy metal and natural radioactivity in soil around a coal-fired power plant in China. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 295(2013):1845–1854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Manigandan P, Shekar BC (2014) Evaluation of radionuclides in the terrestrial environment of Western Ghats. J Radiat Res Appl Sci 7(3):310–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Morsy Z, El-Wahab MA, El-Faramawy N (2012) Determination of natural radioactive elements in Abo Zaabal, Egypt by means of gamma spectroscopy. Ann Nucl Energy 44:8–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. NEA-OECD (1979) Exposure to radiation from natural radioactivity in building materials. Report by NEA Group of Experts. OECD, ParisGoogle Scholar
  26. Ramasamy V, Suresh G, Meenakshisundaram V, Ponnusamy V (2011) Horizontal and vertical characterization of radionuclides and minerals in river sediments. Appl Radiat Isot 69(1):184–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ravisankar R, Vanasundari K, Suganya M, Raghu Y, Rajalakshmi A, Chandrasekaran A, Sivakumar S, Chandramohan J, Vijayagopal P, Venkatraman B (2014) Multivariate statistical analysis of radiological data of building materials used in Tiruvannamalai, Tamilnadu, India. Appl Radiat Isot 85:114–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Senthilkumar G, Ravisankar R, Vanasundari K, Vijayalakshmi I, Vijayagopal P, Jose M (2013) Assessment of radioactivity and the associated hazards in local cement types used in Tamilnadu, India. Radiat Phys Chem 88:45–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sivakumar S, Chandrasekaran A, Ravisankar R, Ravikumar S, Jebakumar JPP, Vijayagopal P, Vijayalakshmi I, Jose M (2014) Measurement of natural radioactivity and evaluation of radiation hazards in coastal sediments of east coast of Tamilnadu using statistical approach. J Taibah Univ Sci 8(4):375–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tanasković I, Golobocanin D, Miljević N (2012) Multivariate statistical analysis of hydrochemical and radiological data of Serbian spa waters. J Geochem Explor 112:226–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Taskin H, Karavus M, Ay P, Topuzoglu A, Hidiroglu S, Karahan G (2009) Radionuclide concentrations in soil and lifetime cancer risk due to gamma radioactivity in Kirklareli, Turkey. J Environ Radioact 100(1):49–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. UNSCEAR (2000) Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. Report to general assembly, with scientific annexes. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. UNSCEAR (2008) Effects of ionizing radiation: report to the general assembly, with scientific annexes, vol 1. United Nations, New York Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew Tikpangi Kolo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mayeen Uddin Khandaker
    • 2
  • Hauwau Kulu Shuaibu
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsFederal University of TechnologyMinnaNigeria
  2. 2.Centre for Radiation Sciences, School of Healthcare and Medical SciencesSunway UniversityBandar SunwayMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsNigerian Defence AcademyKadunaNigeria

Personalised recommendations