Advertisement

Estimation of sedimentation rate of Tikvesh Reservoir in Republic of Macedonia using SWAT

  • Dragan IvanoskiEmail author
  • Slavisa Trajkovic
  • Milan Gocic
Original Paper

Abstract

The objective of this study was to perform a long-term modeling of the sedimentation rate of one of the largest reservoirs in the Republic of Macedonia, i.e., the “Tikvesh” reservoir. The developed mathematical model should serve for detailed analysis of the sedimentation rate in the reservoir over time, and if the obtained results are acceptable, it should be further developed and used in defining practices of sustainable management of the reservoir in future. For this purpose, a widely applied, semi-distributed, and process-based watershed-scale model SWAT was used. Using SWAT, the production of sediments in the watershed as well as their transport through the river network was modeled. Based on the empirically estimated reservoir trap efficiency as well as bulk density of the settled material, volumetric sediment budgeting was done, whereby the temporal distribution of the reservoir sedimentation rate was defined. The obtained results were compared with the information from several bathymetric surveys of the reservoir whereat a satisfactory match was found. The model was generated for the period extending from 1969, when the reservoir was put into operation, to 2016, when the last bathymetric survey was conducted. The period between 1969 and 1985 was used for calibration of the model, while the period from 1986 to 1991 was used for its validation. Forecast referring to the change of the deposited quantities of sediments in the reservoir was made for the period from 1992 to 2016. In the absence of reliable data from measurements done in this period, climate data generation and consequently watershed sedimentation yield estimation by using the WXGEN—weather generator—were conducted. The obtained results point to variable sedimentation rate of the reservoir in different periods, depending on the variability of the weather conditions within the watershed. The average sedimentation rate of the reservoir in the analyzed period 1969–2016 at an annual level is 0.02–1.28% of the initial volume, which is around the estimated world average amounting to 0.5–1%.

Keywords

Reservoirs Sedimentation rate Watershed-scale model Long-term modeling 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank anonymous referees for their valuable comments and their constructive suggestions that helped us improve the final version of the article.

Author Contributions

All authors equally contributed to all phases of creation of this article.

Funding information

This paper was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technological Development, Republic of Serbia, Grant No. 451-03-02294/2015-09/10 and the bilateral project “Projected Changes of Hydrological Hazards (extreme precipitation and drought) in Hungary and Serbia.”

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abbaspour KC (2012) SWAT-CUP-2012 SWAT calibration and uncertainty program—a user manual. Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dubendorf, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  2. Abbaspour KC, Yang J, Maximov I, Siber R, Bogner K, Mieleitner J, Zobrist J, Srinivasan R, Reichert P (2007) Modeling of hydrology and water quality in the pre-alpine/alpine Thur watershed using SWAT. J Hydrol 333:413–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abbaspour KC, Rouholahnejad E, Vaghefa S, Srinivasan R, Yang H, Klove B (2015) A continental-scale hydrology and water quality model for Europe: calibration and uncertainty of a high-resolution large-scale SWAT model. J Hydrol 524:733–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akay H, Baduna Kocyigit M, Yanmaz AM (2018) Effect of using multiple stream gauging stations on hydrologic parameters and estimation of hydrograph of ungauged neighboring basin. Arab J Geosci 11:282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Annandale GW, Morris GL, Pravin K (2016) Extending the life of reservoirs: sustainable sediment management for dams and run-of-river hydropower. Directions in Development Washington DC World BankGoogle Scholar
  6. Arnold JG, Srinivasan R, Muttiah RS, Williams JR (1998) Large area hydrologic modeling and assessment part 1: model development. J Am Water Resour Assoc 34:73–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arnold JG, Moriasi DN, Gassman PW, Abbaspour KC, White MJ, Srinivasan R, Santhi C, Harmel RD, van Griensven A, Van Liew MW, Kannan N, Jha MK (2012) SWAT: Model use, calibration, and validation. Trans. ASABE 55(4):1491–1508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baduna Kocyigit M, Akay H, Yanmaz AM (2017) Effect of watershed partitioning on hydrologic parameters and estimation of hydrograph of an ungauged basin: a case study in Gokirmak and Kocanaz, Turkey. Arab J Geosci 10:331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bagnold RA (1977) Bedload transport in natural rivers. Water Resources Res 13(2):303–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Basson G R (2008) Mathematical modeling of sediment transport and deposition in reservoirs—guidelines and case studies, ICOLD Bulletin approved by executive meeting, SofiaGoogle Scholar
  11. Borselli L, Torri D, Poesen J, Iaquinta P (2012) A Robust algorithm for estimating soil erodibility in different climates. CATENA 97:85–94.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2012.05.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brune GM (1953) Trap efficiency of reservoirs. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 34(3):407–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chaplot V (2014) Impact of spatial input data resolution on hydrological and erosion modeling: recommendations from a global assessment. J Phys Chem Earth. 67-69:23–35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2013.09.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ciang L-C, Yuan Y (2015) NHD Plus dataset, watershed subdivision and SWAT model performance. Hydrol Sci J. 60:1690–1708.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2014.916408 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. CLC 2006 Corine Land Cover. http://sia.eionet.europa.eu/ CLC2006 2012
  16. Djordjevic M, Trendafilov A, Jelic D, Georgievski S, Popovski A (1993) Erosion map of the Republic of Macedonia. Memoir Water Development Institute, SkopjeGoogle Scholar
  17. Doronzo DM, Dellino P (2013) Hydraulics of subaqueous ash flows as deduced from their deposits: 2. Water entrainment, sedimentation, and deposition, with implications on pyroclastic density current deposit emplacement. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 258:176–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Douglas-Mankin KR, Srinivasan R, Arnold JG (2010) Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model: current development and applications. Trans ASABE 53(5):1423–1431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISS-CAS/JRC (2009) Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.1). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Luxembourg, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  20. Gassman PW, Reyes MR, Green CH, Arnold JG (2007) The Soil and Water Assessment Tool: historical development, applications, and future research directions. Trans. ASABE 50(4):1211–1250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gassman PW, Arnold JG, Srinivasan R, Reyes M (2010) The worldwide use of the SWAT model: technological drivers, networking impacts, and simulation trends. In: Proc. 21st Century Watershed Technology: Improving Water Quality and Environment, ASABE Publication No. 701P0210cd, St. Joseph, Mich.: ASABEGoogle Scholar
  22. Gavrilović S (1972) Engineering of torrents and erosion. Journal of Construction (Special Issue), Belgrade, Yugoslavia (in Serbian)Google Scholar
  23. Gyamfi C, Ndambuki JM, Salim RW (2016) Simulation of sediment yield in a semi-arid river basin under changing land use: an integrated approach of hydrologic modelling and principal component analysis. Sustainability 8:1133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ivanoski D (2016) Bathymetry surveys in Tikvesh Reservoirs. Faculty of Civil Engineering, SkopjeGoogle Scholar
  25. Jha M, Gassman PW, Secchi S, Gu R, Arnold JG (2004) Effects of watershed subdivision on SWAT flow, sediment and nutrient prediction. J Am Water Resour Assos 40:811–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Juez C, Murillo J, García-Navarro P (2013) Numerical assessment of bed-load discharge formulations for transient flow in 1D and 2D situations. Journal of Hydroinformatics. 15:1234–1257.  https://doi.org/10.2166/hydro.2013.153
  27. Juez C, Tena A, Fernández-Pato J, Batalla RJ, García-Navarro P (2018) Application of a distributed 2D overland flow model for rainfall/runoff and erosion simulation in Mediterranean watershed. Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica 44:615.  https://doi.org/10.18172/cig.3320 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Krysanova V, Arnold JG (2008) Advances in ecohydrological modeling with SWAT: a review. Hydrol Sci.J 53(5):939–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lara J M, Pemberton E L (1963) Initial unit-weight of deposited sediments, Paper No. 28. Proc. Federal Inter-Agency Sedimentation Conference, U.S.D.A., USAGoogle Scholar
  30. Milevski I (2015) An approach of GIS based assessment of soil erosion rate on country level in the case of Macedonia.  https://doi.org/10.18509/GBP.2015.13
  31. Miller CR (1953) Determination of the unit weight of sediment for use in sediment volume computations. U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, USAGoogle Scholar
  32. Moriasi DN, Gitau MW, Pai N, Daggupati P (2015) Hydrologic and water quality models: performance measures and evaluation criteria. Trans. ASABE 58(6):1763–1785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Neitsch SL, Arnold JG, Kiniry JR, Williams JR (2011) SWAT User Manual (Version 2009); Texas Water Resources Institute Technical Report. Texas A and M University, TempleGoogle Scholar
  34. Oeurng C, Sauvage S, Sanchez-Perez J (2011) Assessment of hydrology, sediment and particulate organic carbon yield in a large agricultural catchment using the SWAT model. J Hydrol 401:145–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Panagos P, Meusburger K, Ballabio C, Borrelli P, Alewell C (2014) Soil erodibility in Europe: a high-resolution dataset based on LUCAS. Science of the Total Environment 479–480:189–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Panagos P, Borrelli P, Meusburger K, Alewell C, Lugato E, Montanarella L (2015) Estimating the soil erosion cover-management factor at the European scale. land use policy 48:38–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Panagos P, Ballabio C, Lugato E, Jones A, Borrelli P (2017) Condition of agricultural soil: factsheet on soil erosion, EUR 29020. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, ISBN 978- 92-79-77328-0, JRC110011.  https://doi.org/10.2760/728794 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schleiss A, Franca M, Juez C, De Cesare G (2016) Reservoir sedimentation. Journal of Hyderaulic ResearchGoogle Scholar
  39. Tuppad P, Douglas-Mankin KR, Lee T, Srinivasan R, Arnold JG (2011) Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrologic/water quality model: extended capability and wider adoption. Trans ASABE 54(5):1677–1684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vigiak O, Malago A, Bouraoui F, Vanmaercke M, Poesen J (2015) Adapting SWAT hill slope erosion model to predict sediment concentrations and yields in large basins. Sci Total Environ 538:855–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Williams JR (1969) Flood routing with variable travel time or variable storage coefficients. Trans ASABE 12(1):100–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dragan Ivanoski
    • 1
    Email author
  • Slavisa Trajkovic
    • 2
  • Milan Gocic
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Civil EngineeringSs. Cyril and Methodius UniversitySkopjeRepublic of Macedonia
  2. 2.Faculty of Civil Engineering and ArchitectureUniversity of NishNishSerbia

Personalised recommendations