Advertisement

Analysis of the competitiveness of wheat and orange in Tunisia under water shortage scenarios

  • Ali ChebilEmail author
  • Asma Souissi
  • Bechir Bennouna
  • Aymen Frija
ICWEES2018 & IWFC2018
  • 32 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Geo-environmental integration for sustainable development of water, energy, environment and society

Abstract

Increasing water shortage results in higher food prices which may affect the competitiveness of small irrigated farming systems. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of water shortage on the competitiveness of orange and wheat commodities in Tunisia. Stochastic production functions were used to estimate changes in the opportunity cost of water which will be utilized in the calculation of domestic resource cost (DRC). Primary data used for the empirical analysis were collected from 170 wheat and 51 orange farms located in the major irrigated areas of the country. Empirical results indicate that, in the current baseline situation, Tunisia has a comparative advantage in the production of orange but not for wheat production. Results of sensitivity analysis show that the competitiveness in wheat and orange production has been deteriorated due to a decrease in water availability at the farm level. DRC ratio increases from 0.91 to 1.13 for orange, and from 1.24 to 8.27 for wheat with 50% decreases in water availability. However, improving irrigation water use efficiency led to a significant decrease in DRC for both commodities. This finding urges decision-makers to put more efforts to optimize irrigation management at field and farm levels through dissemination of better irrigation scheduling techniques and implementing deficit irrigation strategies especially that the country is under a critical water shortage.

Keywords

Agricultural commodities Competitiveness Water value Water shortage Deficit irrigation Tunisia 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors also wish to thank the staff of the Regional Commissions for Agricultural Development and farmers for their invaluable help.

Funding information

Authors acknowledge the financial support of International Development Research Centre (IDRC) during early process of data collection in the framework of "Virtual water and Food Security in Tunisia project” coordinated by the Higher Agricultural School of Mograne. Authors also wish to thank the staff of the Regional Commissions for Agricultural Development and farmers for their invaluable help.

References

  1. Adeoye IB, Oni OA (2014) Competitiveness and effects of policies on plantain production systems in Southwestern Nigeria. Agris on-line. Papers in Econ Inform 6(4):3–13Google Scholar
  2. Adesina AA, Coulibaly ON (1998) Policy and competitiveness of agroforestry- based technologies for maize production in Cameroon. An application of policy analysis matrix. Agric Econ 19:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aigner DJ, Lovell AK, Schmidt PJ (1977) Formulation and estimation of stochastic frontier production function models. J Econ 6:21–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Albouchi L, Bachta MS, Jacquet F (2007) Efficacités productives comparées des zones irriguées au sein d’un bassin versant. New Medit 3:4–13Google Scholar
  5. Basavaraj G, Rao Parthasarathy P, Achoth L, Ravinder Reddy C (2013) Assessing competitiveness of sweet sorghum for ethanol production: a policy analysis matrix approach. Agric Econ Res Rev 26(1):31–40Google Scholar
  6. Battese GE (1992) Frontier production functions and technical efficiency: a survey of empirical application in agricultural economics. Agric Econ 7:185–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bleu P (2011) L’efficience d’utilisation de l’eau et approche économique ; Etude Nationale, Tunisie. Centre d’Activités Régionales PNUE/PAM. Juillet 2011 19pGoogle Scholar
  8. Bravo-Ureta BE, Pinheiro AE (1993) Efficiency analysis of developing country agriculture: a review of the frontier function literature. Agric Resour Econ Rev 22:88–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Briones R (2014) Domestic resource cost in Philippine agriculture: measuring global competitiveness of key commodities. Philippine J Develop:157–184Google Scholar
  10. Capraa A, Consoli S, Scicolone B (2008) Water management strategies under deficit irrigation. J Agric Eng 4:27–34Google Scholar
  11. Chebil A, Frija A, Abdelkafi B (2012) Irrigation water use efficiency in collective irrigated schemes of Tunisia: determinants and potential irrigation cost reduction. Agric Econ Rev 13(n°1):39–48Google Scholar
  12. Chebil A, Bahri W, Frija A (2013) Mesure et déterminants de l’efficacité d’usage de l’eau d’irrigation dans la production du blé dur: cas de Chbika (Tunisie). New Médit:49–55Google Scholar
  13. Chemak F (2012) Water demand management by monitoring the technology performance and the water use efficiency. Am J Environ Sci 8(3):241–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chemak F, Boussemart JP, Jacquet F (2010) Farming system performance and water use efficiency in the Tunisian semi-arid region : data envelopment analysis approach. Int Trans Oper Res 17:381–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Coelli TJ (1994) A guide to Frontier 4.1: a computer program for stochastic frontier production and cost function estimation. Dept. Econometrics, University of New England, ArmidaleGoogle Scholar
  16. Coelli TJ (1995) Recent developments in frontier modelling and efficiency measurement. Aust J Agric Econ 39(3):219–245Google Scholar
  17. Dhehibi B, Lachaal L, Elloumi M, Messaoud A (2007) Measuring irrigation water use efficiency using stochastic production frontier: an application on citrus producing farms in Tunisia. Afr J Agric Resour Econ 1(2):99–114Google Scholar
  18. Dhehibi B, Frija A, Aw-Hassan A (2014) Performances, policies, challenges and opportunities of the Tunisian agriculture sector from natural resources management perspective a SWOT analysis. American-Eurasian J Agr Environ Sci 14:1351–1358Google Scholar
  19. Fereres E, Soriano MA (2007) Deficit irrigation for reducing agricultural water use. J Exp Bot 58(2):147–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Frija A, Chebil A, Speelman S, Buysse J, Van Huylenbroeck G (2009) Water use and technical efficiencies in horticultural greenhouses in Tunisia. Agric Water Manag 96(11):1509–1516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Geerts S, Raes D (2009) Deficit irrigation as on farm strategy to maximize crop water productivity in dry areas. Agric Water Manag 96:1275–1284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Institut Tunisienne des Etudes Stratégiques (ITES) (2014) Étude stratégique: Système hydraulique de la Tunisie à l’horizon 2030. 220 p. ITES, TunisGoogle Scholar
  23. Jondrow J, Lovell CA, Materov IS, Schmidt P (1982) On the estimation of technical inefficiency in the stochastic frontier production function model. J Econ 19:233–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kanaka S, Chinnadurai M (2013) The policy analysis matrix of rice cultivation in India. Eur J Phys Agric Sci 1(1):8–19Google Scholar
  25. Kydd J, Pearce R, Stockbridge M (1997) The economic analysis of commodity systems. Extending the policy analysis matrix to account for environmental effects and transactions costs. Agric Syst 55:323–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Masters WA, Winter-Nelson A (1995) Measuring the comparative advantage of agricultural activities: domestic resource costs and social cost-benefit ratio. Am J Agric Econ 77:243–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mesa-Jurado MA, Berbel J, Orgaz F (2010) Estimating marginal value of water for irrigated olive grove with the production function method. Span J Agric Res 8:11pCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ministry of Agriculture (MoA 2017) Results of the survey on irrigated public areas 2015-2016, p 73pGoogle Scholar
  29. Monke A, Pearson R (1989) The policy analysis for agricultural development. Cornell University PressGoogle Scholar
  30. National Institute of Statistics (INS) (2016) Annuaire Statistique de la Tunisie 2016 364pGoogle Scholar
  31. Ogbe AO, Okoruwa VO, Saka OJ (2011) Competitiveness of Nigerian rice and maize production ecologies; a policy analysis matrix approach. Tropical and Subtropical Agro Ecosystems Journal 14:493–500Google Scholar
  32. Porter ME (1990) The competitive advantage of nations. Free Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sadeghi A, Mohayidin MG, Hussein MA, Baheiraei A (2010) Aust J Basic Appl Sci 4(6):1391–1402Google Scholar
  34. Scheiterle L, Birner R (2016) Comparative advantage and factors affecting maize production in Northern Ghana: a policy analysis matrix study. 5th International Conference of AAAE, Addis-Ababa, EthiopiaGoogle Scholar
  35. Thiam A, Bravo-Ureta BE, Rivas TE (2001) Technical efficiency in developing country agriculture: a meta-analysis. Agric Econ 25(2-3):235–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tsakok I (1990) Agricultural price policy: a practitioner’s guide to partial-equilibrium analysis. Cornell University Press, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  37. Ward FA, Michelsen A (2002) The economic value of water in agriculture: concepts and policy applications. Water 4:423–446Google Scholar
  38. Yao S (1997) Comparative advantages and crop diversification: a policy analysis matrix for Thai agriculture. J Agric Econ 48(1-3):211–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Young RA (2005) Determining the economic value of water: concepts and methods. Resource for the future, vol 356, Washington, D.C. pGoogle Scholar
  40. Zairi A, El Amami H, Slatni A, Pereira LS, Rodrigues PN, Machado T (2003) Coping with drought: deficit irrigation strategies for cereals and field horticultural crops in. In: Central Tunisia Rossi G, Cancelliere A, Pereira LS, Oweis T, Shatanawi M, Zairi A (eds) Tools for drought mitigation in Mediterranean regions. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 181–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zolpirani MN, Amirnejad H, Shahnazari A (2015) Calculating the economic value of water in paddy farms in the area of Alborz Dam. J Novel Appl Sci 4(2):197–201Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali Chebil
    • 1
    Email author
  • Asma Souissi
    • 2
  • Bechir Bennouna
    • 1
  • Aymen Frija
    • 3
  1. 1.National Research Institute for Rural Engineering, Water and Forestry (INRGREF), Rue Hédi KarrayUniversity of CarthageArianaTunisia
  2. 2.Higher Institute of Agronomic Sciences (ISA)Chott-MériemTunisia
  3. 3.International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA)TunisTunisia

Personalised recommendations