The determination of alteration extent using minero-petrographical, geochemical, and geomechanical properties in granitic rocks from the Tavşanlı Zone (NW Turkey)

  • Ahmet YıldızEmail author
  • Metin Bağcı
  • Sevgi Çetintaş
  • Mehmet Demirbilek
  • Yaşar Kibici
  • Nurdane İlbeyli
Original Paper


The effects of alteration on granites outcropping around Sivrihisar area within the Tavşanlı Zone (NW Turkey) were investigated considering minero-petrographical, geochemical, and geomechanical properties. For this aim, polarizing light microscope, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, chemical analyses, and geomechanical tests were conducted on the granitic samples. The new petrographic index, referred as feldspar alteration index, was developed from the quantitative ratios of total and altered constituents in feldspar minerals. Based on solution-precipitation processes, plagioclase and alkali feldspar were altered to smectite, sericite, and kaolinite along microfractures, cleavage, twinning, and zoning structure. Anorthite-rich core is more altered than the rim of zoned plagioclase due to higher solubility in water and selective alteration of calcic plagioclase. EDS studies indicate that Na, Si, and Ca decrease and Mg, Al, K, and Fe progressively increase. The normalized values of whole-rock chemical analyses of the granites show depletion of Si, Al, Na, and Ca reflecting the dissolution of plagioclase. Enrichment of Si, Al, Na, Ca, Mg, K, and Fe reveal precipitation of smectite, sericite, and kaolinite minerals during alteration. Minero-petrographical and geochemical changes led to an increase in water absorption and apparent porosity and a decrease in apparent density, P-wave velocity, Schmidt hammer rebound, and compressive strength. Significant relationships between FAI and geomechanical properties (R2 = 0.7116–0.8676), FAI and P-wave velocity index (Ivp) (R2 = 0.8676), and FAI and strength ratio (Rs) (R2 = 0.7614) demonstrate that FAI can be used to determine the alteration degree of granites.


Granite Alteration Mineralogy Petrography Geochemistry Geomechanical Properties Turkey 



This paper includes the part of the AKU-BAPK Projects 08.ISCMYO.02. The authors express their gratitude to AKU-BAPK for her financial support in completing the field and laboratory studies.

Funding information

The Coordinatorships of Scientific Research Project of Afyon Kocatepe University funded this investigation.


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Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmet Yıldız
    • 1
    Email author
  • Metin Bağcı
    • 1
  • Sevgi Çetintaş
    • 2
  • Mehmet Demirbilek
    • 3
  • Yaşar Kibici
    • 4
  • Nurdane İlbeyli
    • 5
  1. 1.Afyon Kocatepe UniversityEngineering FacultyAfyonkarahisarTurkey
  2. 2.Akdeniz UniversityVocational School of Technical SciencesAntalyaTurkey
  3. 3.Dumlupınar UniversityEngineering FacultyKütahyaTurkey
  4. 4.Bilecik Şeyh Edipali UniversityVocational SchoolBilecikTurkey
  5. 5.Akdeniz UniversityEngineering FacultyAntalyaTurkey

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