Spatial and temporal variabilities of maximum snow depth in the Northern and Central Kazakhstan

  • Marat Moldakhmetov
  • Lyazzat Makhmudova
  • Zhanara Zhanabayeva
  • Alina KumeikoEmail author
  • Mohammad Daud Hamidi
  • Jay Sagin
Original Paper


This article examined the dynamics of maximum snow cover in the Northern and Central Kazakhstan for the period from 1935 to 2012. Certain number of data from weather stations was collected for both regions (Northern and Central Kazakhstan) of the country in order to observe the spatial and temporal changes in glaciers. Mann-Kendall test along with sequential version of MK test and simple linear regression was used in the analysis. The analysis revealed regularities of the changes in maximum snow depth over spatial and temporal scales. Cumulative sum uncovered a change in trend, which indicated the data of global warming possibly affected the glacier. Periodicities in glacier changes were weakly related to the weather patterns like North Atlantic Oscillation and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillations. Obtained results, regularities, and inferences can be used in further studies of snow cover and water flow of the rivers, as well as for practical purposes. Recent changes in climate and hydrological flow of the observed catchment became evident for contemporary glaciations evolving hydrological implications of the cryosphere alterations in the study area. Findings of the study are useful in examining the differences in water availability on spatial and temporal scales due to limited availability of the glaciers in the region.


Snow cover Snow cover duration (SCD) Height of the snow cover Climate change 


  1. Aizen VB, Kuzmichenok VA, Surazakov AB, Aizen EM (2006) Glacier changes in the Central and Northern Tien Shan during the last 140 years based on surface and remote-sensing data. Ann Glaciol 43:202–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aizen VB, Kuzmichenok VA, Surazakov AB, Aizen EM (2007) Glacier changes in the Tien Shan as determined from topographic and remotely sensed data. Glob Planet Chang 56:328–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Applied science handbook on climate of the USSR. Series 3. Long-term data. Parts 1–6. Issue 18. Kazakh USSR. Book 2. Gidrometeoizdat, 1989. - 322–352 p.Google Scholar
  4. Baraer M, Mark BG, Mckenzie JM, Condom T, Bury J, Huh KI, Portocarrero C, Gómez J, Rathay S (2012) Glacier recession and water resources in Peru’s Cordillera Blanca. J Glaciol 58:134–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bolch T (2007) Climate change and glacier retreat in northern Tien Shan (Kazakhstan/Kyrgyzstan) using remote sensing data. Glob Planet Chang 56:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown RD (2008) Analysis of snow cover variability and change in Québec, 1948–2005, Proc. 65th Eastern Snow Conference, Fairlee, VT, pp 109–121Google Scholar
  7. Cetin M, Sevik H (2016a) Evaluating the recreation potential of Ilgaz Mountain National Park in Turkey. Environ Monit Assess 188(1):52.
  8. Cetin M & Sevik H, 2016b. Chapter 5: Assessing potential areas of ecotourism through a case study in Ilgaz Mountain National Park, Tourism - From Empirical Research Towards Practical Application. InTech, Eds:Leszek Butowski, pp.190, ISBN:978-953-51-2281-4, Chapter pp. 81–110Google Scholar
  9. M. Cetin, E Yildirim, U. Canturk and H. Sevik 2018. Chapter 25: investigation of bioclimatic comfort area of Elazig city centre. In book title: Recent researches in science and landscape management, Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN (10): 1-5275-1087-5, ISBN (13): 978-1-5275-1087-6, Lady Stephenson Library, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE6 2PA, UK. 324–333Google Scholar
  10. Chen Y, Takeuchi K, Xu C, Chen Y, Xu Z (2006) Regional climate change and its effects on river runoff in the Tarim Basin, China. Hydrol Process 20:2207–2216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dahlke HE, Lyon SW, Stedinger J, Rosqvist G, Jansson P (2012) Contrasting trends in floods for two sub-arctic catchments in northern Sweden–does glacier presence matter? Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 16:2123–2141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dolgikh SA (1999) Monitoring and climate change scenarios of Kazakhstan in consideration with global warming. Author diss Candidate Geogr Sciences - Almaty:23Google Scholar
  13. Duethmann D, Bolch T, Farinotti D, Kriegel D, Vorogushyn S, Merz B, Pieczonka T, Jiang SB, Güntner A (2015) Attribution of streamflow trends in snow and glacier melt dominated catchments of the Tarim River, Central Asia. Water Resour Res 51:4727–4750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hagg W, Braun L, Kuhn M, Nesgaard T (2007) Modelling of hydrological response to climate change in glacierized Central Asian catchments. J Hydrol 332:40–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kaya E, Agca M, Adiguzel F & Cetin M (2018) Spatial data analysis with R programming for environment. Hum Ecol Risk Assess Int J.
  16. Kormann C, Francke T, Renner M, Bronstert A (2015) Attribution of high resolution streamflow trends in Western Austria–an approach based on climate and discharge station data. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 19:1225–1245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kriegel D, Mayer C, Hagg W, Vorogushyn S, Duethmann D, Gafurov A, Farinotti D (2013) Changes in glacierisation, climate and runoff in the second half of the 20th century in the Naryn basin, Central Asia. Glob Planet Chang 110:51–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Li B, Zhu A, Zhang Y, Pei T, Qin C, Zhou C (2006) Glacier change over the past four decades in the middle Chinese Tien Shan. J Glaciol 52:425–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Merz B, Vorogushyn S, Uhlemann S, Delgado J, Hundecha Y (2012) Hess Opinions More efforts and scientific rigour are needed to attribute trends in flood time series. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 16:1379–1387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ministry of Environmental Protection of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Republican State Enterprise "Kazakhstan Research Institute of Ecology and Climate". On the state of the environment in the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2003, the National report of the Ministry of the Environment in the RK - Astana, 2005. - 256 p.Google Scholar
  21. Moldakhmetov M, Makhmudova L, Mussina A, Bolatov K (2013) Dynamics of snow characteristics in terms of regional climate change in the Northern and the Central Kazakhstan//7th Conference «European Applied Sciences: modern approaches in scientific researches». Hosted by the ORT Publishing and the center for social and political studies «Premier». Conference papers, Stuttgart, Germany, pp 6–9Google Scholar
  22. Moore R, Demuth M (2001) Mass balance and streamflow variability at Place Glacier, Canada, in relation to recent climate fluctuations. Hydrol Process 15:3473–3486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Moore R, Fleming S, Menounos B, Wheate R, Fountain A, Stahl K, Holm K, Jakob M (2009) Glacier change in western North America: influences on hydrology, geomorphic hazards and water quality. Hydrol Process 23:42–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mote PW (2006) Climate-driven variability and trends in mountain snowpack in Western North America. J Clim 19:6209–6220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Narama C, Kääb A, Duishonakunov M, Abdrakhmatov K (2010) Spatial variability of recent glacier area changes in the Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia, using Corona (~ 1970), Landsat (~ 2000), and ALOS (~ 2007) satellite data. Glob Planet Chang 71:42–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Salnikov VG, Turulina GK, Polyakova SE, Moldakhmetov MM, Makhmudova LK (2011) Climatic fluctuations of the general circulation of the atmosphere, precipitation and water flow over the territory of Kazakhstan//Vestnik KazNU Ser. Geogr Almaty 2(33):19–24Google Scholar
  27. Sorg A, Bolch T, Stoffel M, Solomina O, Beniston M (2012) Climate change impacts on glaciers and runoff in Tien Shan (Central Asia). Nat Clim Chang 2:725–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Stahl K & Moore R (2006) Influence of watershed glacier coverage on summer streamflow in British Columbia, Canada. Water Resour Res, 42(6).

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marat Moldakhmetov
    • 1
  • Lyazzat Makhmudova
    • 2
  • Zhanara Zhanabayeva
    • 3
  • Alina Kumeiko
    • 4
    Email author
  • Mohammad Daud Hamidi
    • 4
  • Jay Sagin
    • 5
  1. 1.Taraz Innovation and Humanities UniversityTarazKazakhstan
  2. 2.Department of Internal QualityTaraz Innovation and Humanities UniversityTarazKazakhstan
  3. 3.Faculty of Geography and Environmental SciencesAl-Farabi Kazakh National UniversityAlmatyKazakhstan
  4. 4.UNESCO Chair on Water Resources Management in Central AsiaGerman-Kazakh UniversityAlmatyKazakhstan
  5. 5.Civil Engineering Department at School of EngineeringNazarbayev UniversityAstanaKazakhstan

Personalised recommendations