Advertisement

Mapping lateritic bauxite at Az Zabirah, Saudi Arabia, using ground-penetrating radar exploration method

  • Yasir A. Almutairi
  • Hesham M. ElAraby
  • Habes A. GhrefatEmail author
  • Abdulrahman M. Alotaibi
Review Paper
  • 29 Downloads

Abstract

This paper presents the three-dimensional (3D) data interpretation of a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey, in conjunction with the existing boreholes, covering the area of the Az Zabirah bauxite deposits, northern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The purpose of this study was to measure and map the volume of the bauxite deposits in the selected survey area, as well as to prove the success of the ground-penetrating radar exploration method in detecting and mapping the bauxite layer. The 3D GPR data interpretation detected the bauxite layer at different depths and of variable thickness. The interpretation of the GPR profiles show three distinct layers, namely sandstone, upper clay, and bauxite of variable thicknesses. Each zone has a different reflection pattern or radar facies, which aided in their differentiation. The calculated total volume of bauxite in the study area from the GPR survey and borehole data was 34,696 m3 and 34,101 m3, respectively. The minor difference in the calculated volumes between the two datasets was approximately 1%.

Keywords

Ground-penetrating radar Az Zabirah Bauxite deposits Saudi Arabia Mapping Borehole 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology and the Ma’aden Company for their scientific support and assistance during the field work. Appreciation is also extended to colleagues Khaled Almutairi, Abdulaziz Almutairi, Ramzi Almutairi, and Abdulsalam Alasmari (King Abdul-Aziz City for Science and Technology) for their help and support.

References

  1. Alcoa Inc. (2012) Ma’aden Alcoa aluminum joint venture pours first concrete for Middle East’s first alumina refinery at Ras al Khair: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Alcoa Inc news release, February 3.Google Scholar
  2. Austin GL, Austin LB (1974) The use of radar in urban hydrology. J Hydrol 22:131–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Basson U (2000) Imaging of active fault zone in the Dead Sea Rift: Evrona Fault Zone as a case study: thesis submitted for the degree of PhD, Tel-Aviv University, Raymond & Beverly Sackler, Faculty of Exact Sciences, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, 196 pGoogle Scholar
  4. Behrendt JC, Drewry D, Jankowski E, England W (1979) Aeromagnetic and radar ice sounding indicate substantially greater area for dufek intrusion in Antarctica. Antarct J US 60:245Google Scholar
  5. Bentley CR, Clough LW, Jezek KC, Shabtaie S (1979) Ice thickness patterns and the dynamics of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Journal oj' Glaciology 24:287–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Black RY, Bognar B, Watson AD, Barnes DP (1982) Evaluation of the Az Zabira bauxite deposit (1980–1982). Riofinex Ltd., Tech. RepGoogle Scholar
  7. Bowden RA (1981) Geology of the Az Zabira bauxite occurrence. Riofinex Ltd., open file reportGoogle Scholar
  8. BRGM Geoscientists (1993) Az Zabirah bauxite deposit prefeasibility study—technical report BRGM-TR-13-3, Part 1: Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources—directorate general of mineral resourcesGoogle Scholar
  9. Bryan ML (1974) Ice thickness variability on Silver Lake, Genesee County, Michigan: a radar approach, advanced concepts in the study of snow and ice resources: United States contribution to the international hydrological decade, 213–223Google Scholar
  10. Caldecott R, Poirier M, Scofea D, Svoboda DE, Terzuoli AJ (1988) Underground mapping of utility lines using impulse radar. Institute of Electrical Engineers, Proceedings F. communications, radar and signal processing 135 part F. pp 343–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cook JC (1973) Radar exploration through rock in advance of mining. Transactions of AIME: Society of Mining Engineers 254:140–146Google Scholar
  12. Cook JC (1975) Radar transparencies of mine and tunnel rocks. Geophysics 40:865–885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cook JC (1977) Borehole-radar exploration in a coal seam. Geophysics 42:1254–1257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Daniels DJ (2004) Ground penetrating radar 2nd edition – London: the Institute of Electrical Engineers United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  15. Davis JL, Annan AP (1989) Ground penetrating radar for high resolution mapping of soil and rock stratigraphy. Geophys Prosp 37:531–551.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2478.1989.tb02221.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dellwig LF, Bare JE (1978) A radar investigation of North Louisiana salt domes. Photog Eng Remote Sens 44:1411–1419Google Scholar
  17. Erten O, Kizil MS, Topal E, McAndrew L (2013) Spatial prediction of lateral variability of a laterite-type bauxite horizon using ancillary ground-penetrating radar data. Nat Resour Res 22(3):207–227.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11053-013-9210-z. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Evans S (1963) Radio techniques for the measurement of ice thickness. Polar Record 11:406–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fahad M, Iqbal Y, Ubic R (2009) Bauxite deposits in Pakistan: an introduction: J Pak Mater Soc 2009 3(1):41–44.Google Scholar
  20. Frankce J (2012) A review of selected ground penetrating radar applications to mineral resource evaluations. J Appl Geophys 81:29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gawthorpe RL, Collier RE, Alexander J, Bridge JS, Leeder MR (1993) Ground-penetrating radar-application to sandbody geometry and heterogeneity studies. Geochem Soc Spec Publ 73:421–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. GHD (2005) Ma’aden Aluminuim project: terms of reference for environmental impact assessmentGoogle Scholar
  23. Hänninen P (1992) Application of ground penetrating radar and radio wave moisture probe techniques to peatland investigations. Geological Survey of Finland, Rovaniemi, Finland, 71 ppGoogle Scholar
  24. Hatch (2008) Ma’aden/Alcan Az Zabirah aluminium project: mine and refinery FEL 2 study—mine operating plan—document no: 327197-M20-T-24-0004 MA‟ADEN NO M100–1-RE-003 Rev 0 Report submitted to Ma'adenGoogle Scholar
  25. Imai T, Sakayama T, Kanemori T (1987) Use of ground penetrating radar and resistivity surveys for archeological investigations. Geophysics 52:137–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kusuma KN (2012) Spectral pathways for effective delineation of high-grade bauxites: a case study from the Savitri River basin, Maharashtra, India, using EO-1 Hyperion data. Int J Remote Sens 33(22):7273–7290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lebret PM, Halawani A, Memesh P, Razin C, Bourdillon D, Janjou Y, Nindre Y-ML, Roger J, Shorbaji H, Kurdi H (1999) Geologic map of the Turubah quadrangle, sheet 28F, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, scale 1:250,000. Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources, Geoscience Map GM-139, with explanatory notesGoogle Scholar
  28. Møller I, Vosgerau H (2006) Testing ground penetrating radar for resolving facies architecture changes—a radar stratigraphic and sedimentological analysis along a 30 km profile on the Karup Outwash Plain, Denmark. Near Surface Geophysics 4(1):57–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Morey RM (1974) Continuous sub-surface profiling by impulse radar: conference on subsurface exploration for underground excavation and heavy construction. American Society of Civil Engineers, pp 213–232Google Scholar
  30. Morey RM (1976) Detection of subsurface cavities by ground penetrating radar. Highway Geological Symposium 27:28–30Google Scholar
  31. Osumi N, Ueno K (1988) Detection of buried plant. IEE Proceedings F Communications. Radar and Signal Processing 135(4):330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Powers RW, Ramirez LF, Redmond LD, Elberg EL (1966) Sedimentary geology of Saudi Arabia U.S. Geol. Surv., Prof. Pap. 560-DGoogle Scholar
  33. Reynolds JM (1997) An introduction to applied and environmental geophysics: ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  34. Robelin C, Al-Muallem MS, Brosse JM, Fourniguet J, Garcin M, Gouyet JF, Halawani M, Janjou D, Nindre Y-ML (1994) Geologic map of the Qibah quadrangle, sheet 27G, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, scale 1:250,000. Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources, Geoscience Map GM-136, with explanatory notesGoogle Scholar
  35. Ross Y, Black RY, Lozej GP, Maddah SS (1984) Geology and mineralogy of the Az Zabirah bauxite, northern Saudi Arabia: proceedings of the 1984 bauxite symposium, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  36. Sandmeier KJ (2010) Reflex 6.0 Manual. Sandmeier Software. Zipser Strabe 1, D-76227 (Karlsruhe, Germany)Google Scholar
  37. Sheriff RE (1987) Exploration seismology: Volume 2, Data-processing and interpretation. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  38. Steenson BO (1951) Radar methods for the exploration of glaciers Pasadena, California: California Institute of Technology, PasadenaGoogle Scholar
  39. Ulriksen CP (1982) Application of impulse radar to civil engineering: Published PhD Thesis, Lund University of Technology, Lund, Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc. Hudson, New Hampshire, 179 pGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasir A. Almutairi
    • 1
  • Hesham M. ElAraby
    • 2
    • 3
  • Habes A. Ghrefat
    • 2
    Email author
  • Abdulrahman M. Alotaibi
    • 1
  1. 1.King Abdulaziz City for Science and TechnologyRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.College of Science, Geology and Geophysics DepartmentKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Faculty of Science, Geophysics DepartmentCairo UniversityCairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations