Prediction of pressure and temperature changes in the salt caverns of Tuz Golu underground natural gas storage site while withdrawing or injecting natural gas by numerical simulations

  • Sukru MereyEmail author
Original Paper


Tuz Golu (Salt Lake) Underground Gas Storage (UGS) Project in Turkey is being implemented. In some of salt caverns, natural gas is currently stored. While analyzing the data of Tuz Golu UGS project, it was observed that this location is appropriate for safe underground natural gas storage due to its rock salt with high purity and very low permeability. In this study, many numerical simulations for a salt cavern in Tuz Golu UGS project at different gas withdrawal and injection rates were conducted by using TOUGH + RealGasBrine simulator. According to the results of these numerical simulations, the temperature inside salt cavern reduced below 0 °C from 53 °C within 20 days at a rate of gas withdrawal of 3.33 million standard m3/day due to Joule-Thomson effect. The temperature inside salt cavern reduced below 0 °C within 25 days, 40 days, and 60 days at a rate of gas withdrawal of 2.5, 1.67, and 0.833 million standard m3, respectively. In order to avoid fracture around the walls of salt cavern, the temperature change inside salt cavern should not be higher than 30 °C. In the numerical simulations, there is no gas seepages from the salt cavern to other neighbor salt caverns, which are 600 m away owing to very low permeability of salt rock in the study area. The implication of this study is that gas withdrawal and gas injection profiles are quite important to keep the temperature inside salt caverns at an optimum range for safe natural gas storage.


Gas storage Salt caverns Joule-Thomson effect Gas withdrawal Gas injection 



CH4 methane

C3H8 propane

i-C4H10 i-butane

CO2 carbon dioxide

O2 oxygen

C2H5OH ethanol

Mk mass accumulation term of component κ (kg/m3)

qκ source/sink term of component (kg/m3/s)

t time (s)

φ porosity (fraction)

ρβ density of phase β (kg/m3)

ρR rock density (kg/m3)

\( {\delta}_{\uppsi}^{\mathrm{i}} \) 0 when no adsorption, 1 when adsorption exists

mL the total mass storage of component gi at infinite pressure (kg of gas/kg of matrix material)

k rock intrinsic permeability (m2)

krA relative permeability of the aqueous phase

μA viscosity of the aqueous phase (Pa/s)

PA pressure of the aqueous phase (Pa)

b Klinkenberg b-factor

T temperature (K)

NG number of gas components

rpore pore diameter (m)

R universal gas constant

ui specific internal energy of adsorbed gas component gi (J/kg)

\( {J}_{\mathrm{G}}^{\upkappa} \) the diffusive mass flux of component κ in the gas phase (kg/m2/s)

σo Stefan-Boltmann constant (5.6687 × 10−8 J/m2/K4)

Hβ specific enthalpy of phase β: A, G (J/kg)

C2H6 ethane

n-C4H10 n-butane

H2O water

H2S hydrogen sulfide

N2 nitrogen

H2 hydrogen

V, Vn volume, volume of subdomain n (L3)

Fκ Darcy flux vector of component (kg/m2/s)

A, Γn surface area, surface area of subdomain n (L2)

Sβ saturation of phase β: A, aqueous; G, gaseous; H, solid halite

\( {X}_{\upbeta}^{\upkappa} \) mass fraction of component κ: gi, gas component; w, water; s, salt in phase β (kg/kg)

ψi the mass of adsorbed component gi per unit mass of rock (kg/kg)

PdG the dry gas pressure (Pa)

PL the pressure at which half of this mass is stored (Pa)

krG relative permeability of the gaseous phase

g gravitational acceleration vector (m/s2)

μG viscosity of the gaseous phase (Pa/s)

CR heat capacity of the dry rock (J/kg/K)

Uβ specific internal energy of phase β (J/kg)

Tref reference temperature (K)

Kn Knudsen dimensionless number

λ the mean free path of gas molecules

δ the collision diameter of gas molecule (m)

M molecular weight

kB Boltzmann constant (1.3805 × 10−23 J/K)

\( {\overline{k}}_{\uptheta} \) composite thermal conductivity of the medium/fluid ensemble (W/m/K)

radiance emittance factor


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Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas EngineeringBatman UniversityBatmanTurkey

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