Determination of groundwater parameters for drinking and agricultural use in the coastal region of Engiz Aquifer System, Samsun (Turkey)

  • Arzu Firat ErsoyEmail author
  • Zeynep Karaca
Original Paper


The aims of this study are to evaluate the physico-chemical properties of groundwater in the Engiz Aquifer System, determine the sea water intrusion, and investigate suitability of groundwater for both agricultural and drinking purposes of Samsun City in Turkey. It was interpreted whether groundwater was suitable for drinking and the parameters analyzed were checked according to the standards determined by the Turkish drinking water standard (TSE 266 2005). The use of groundwater for irrigation purposes was classified based on the Water Pollution Control Regulation of the Turkish Republic, Criteria for Inland Surface Water Classification (WPCR 2004). The groundwater samples of the Engiz Aquifer System were analyzed for major anion and cations, trace elements, pH, EC, and TDS. The groundwater samples are Ca-Mg-Na-SO4 and Ca-Mg-Na-Cl water types. The groundwater samples are not suitable for drinking because of the high levels of Na, Al, As, Fe, and Ni. Besides, %Na and SAR values indicate that the water is suitable for only salt-tolerant and semi-tolerant crops under suitable irrigation circumstances. According to the Mg Hazard and PI values, 30 and 70%, respectively, of the groundwater samples are not suitable for irrigation in the basin. It is thought that the groundwater salinity is increasing in the future because the groundwater wells are close to the Black Sea coast and there is some intrusion of saline marine waters.


Groundwater Hydrochemistry Coastal aquifer Engiz Aquifer System NE Turkey 



The authors thank Assistant Prof. Hakan ERSOY for his helpful comments on the manuscript. Special thanks are due to “American Manuscript Editors” service to improve the English writing of this article.

Funding information

The study was supported by the Scientific Research Fund of Karadeniz Technical University, Project number 5515


  1. Agoubi B, Kharroubi A, Abida H (2011) Hydrochemistry of groundwater and its assessment for irrigation purpose in coastal Jeffara aquifer, southeastern Tunisia. Arab J Geosci 6:1163–1172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akoyeton IS (2013) Hydrochemical studies of groundwater in parts of Lagos, southwestern Nigeria. Bull Geogr 6:27–42Google Scholar
  3. Allow KA (2011) Seawater intrusion in Syrian coastal aquifers, past, present and future, case study. Arab J Geosci 4:645–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al-Senafy M, Abraham J (2004) Vulnerability of groundwater resources from agricultural activities in southern Kuwait. Agric Water Manag 64:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anim-Gyampo M, Anornu GK, Appiah-Adjei EK, Agodzo SK (2018) Hydrogeochemical evolution and quality assessment of groundwater within the Atankwidi basin: the case of northeastern Ghana. Arab J Geosci 11:439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baharuddin MFT, Taib S, Hashim R, Abidin MHZ, Rahman NI (2012) Assessment of seawater intrusion to the agricultural sustainability at the coastal area of Carey Island, Selangor, Malaysia. Arab J Geosci 6:3909–3928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dişli E (2017) Hydrochemical characteristics of surface and groundwaterand suitability for drinking and agricultural use in the UpperTigris River Basin, Diyarbakır–Batman, Turkey. Environ Earth Sci 76:500. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Doneen LD (1964) Notes on water quality in agriculture. Water Science and Engineering University of California, Davis, P 48Google Scholar
  9. Eaton EM (1950) Significance of carbonate in irrigation water. Soil Sci 69:123–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Edjah AK, Akiti TT, Osae S, Adotey D, Glover ET (2017) Hydrogeochemistry and isotope hydrology of surface water and groundwater systems in the Ellembelle District, Ghana, West Africa. Appl Water Sci 7:609–623. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Elkrail A, Hamid A, Obied B (2012) Hydrochemistry of groundwater at Omdurman area Khatoum State, Sudan. Civ Struct Eng Res 2(4)Google Scholar
  12. Freeze RA, Cherry JA (1979) Groundwater. Prentice-Hall Inc, New Jersey, p 604Google Scholar
  13. Ghoraba S, Khan AD (2013) Hydrochemistry and groundwater quality assessment in Balochistan Province, Pakistan. Hydro Ground Qual Assess 17:2Google Scholar
  14. Guo H, Wang Y (2004) Hydrogeochemical processes in shallow quaternary aquifers from the northern part of the Datong Basin, China. Appl Geochem 19:19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Haritash AK, Mathur K, Singh P, Singh SK (2017) Hydrochemical characterization and suitability assessment of groundwater in Baga–Calangute stretch of Goa, India. Environ Earth Sci 76:341. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hussein HAI, Ricka A, Kuchovsky T, El Osta MM (2017) Groundwater hydrochemistry and origin in the south-eastern part of Wadi El Natrun, Egypt. Arab J Geosci 9:472Google Scholar
  17. Kalbus E, Zekri S, Karimi A (2016) Intervention scenarios to manage seawater intrusion in a coastal agricultural area in Oman. Arab J Geosci 10:170Google Scholar
  18. Karaca Z (2017) Engiz Çayı (Samsun) Akiferinin Hidrojeolojik ve Hidrokimyasal Özellikleri Açısından İncelenmesi. Master Thesis, p 75 Trabzon (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  19. Kelley WP (1963) Use of saline irrigation water. Soil Sci 95:385–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Keskin İ (2011) 1/100.000 Ölçekli Türkiye Jeoloji Haritaları. MTA Genel Müdürlüğü Ankara (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  21. Koffi KV, Obuobie E, Banning A (2017) Hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater and surface water for domestic and irrigation purposes in Vea catchment, Northern Ghana. Environ Earth Sci 76:185. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Paliwal KV (1972) Irrigation with saline water. Water Technol Cent Indian Agric Res Inst New Delhi 2:173–189Google Scholar
  23. Piper AM (1944) A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water analysis. Trans Am Geophys Union 25:914–923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Richards L (1954) Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkaline soils. U.S. Government Printing Office, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  25. Sadashivaiah C, Ramakrishnaiah CR, Ranganna G (2008) Hydrochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater quality in Tumkur Taluk, Karnataka State, India. Int J Environ Res Public Health 5(3):158–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sathish H, Elango L (2016) An integrated study on the characterization of freshwater lens in a coastal aquifer of Southern India. Arab J Geosci 9:643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schoeller H (1962) Les eaux souterraines. Masson, ParisGoogle Scholar
  28. Sherif MM, Singh VP (1999) Effect of climate change on sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers. Hydrol Process 13:1277–1287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tolera MB, Park S, Chang SW, Chung IM (2017) Spatial assessment of groundwater quality in the Jangseong region, South Korea. Environ Earth Sci 76:545. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. TSE 266 (2005) Turkish Drinking Water Standard. Ankara (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  31. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) (2012) World’s groundwater resources are suffering from poor governance. UNESCO Natural Sciences Sector News UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  32. US Salinity Laboratory Staff (1954) Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. US Department of agricultural hand book 60. US Department of Agricultural Soils, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  33. Water Pollution Control Regulation of the Turkish Republic, Criteria for Inland Surface Water Classification (2004). Republic of Turkey, 25687, AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  34. Wilcox LV (1955) Classification and use of irrigation water. USDA, Circular 969. Washington, DC, p 19Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geological EngineeringKaradeniz Technical UniversityTrabzonTurkey

Personalised recommendations