Vertical transmissibility assessment from pressure transient analysis with integration of core data and its impact on water and miscible water-alternative-gas injections

  • Mohammad Yunus Khan
  • Ajay MandalEmail author
Original Paper


The major key uncertainty of complex carbonate reservoirs are the vertical transmissibility across the tight dense (stylolite) layers and areal distribution of high permeability streaks (HKS), which have major impact on reservoir management, well locations, and well completion design in water and miscible water-alternative-gas (miscible WAG) injection process. The present study presents interpretation methodology of vertical transmissibility through assessment of horizontal to vertical permeability ratio (Kv/Kh) from various dynamic data. The Kv/Kh range assessment was done after integration with whole core data and pressure transient data. The impact of Kv/Kh on water and miscible WAG injection processes has also been investigated. The result shows that good vertical communication between the bulk of the porous sub-units and all across stylolite layers except one stylolite layer which acts as field wide barrier. In addition, simulation result of water and miscible WAG injection with higher order of estimated Kv/Kh ratio (0.2 to 1 as found in good permeability porous layers of most of the carbonate reservoirs) indicates no major impact on water cut (WCT), gas oil ratio (GOR), water breakthrough (WBT), gas breakthrough (GBT), and expected ultimate recovery (EUR) in homogeneous area, while oil recovery acceleration with lower WCT/GOR and slightly early WBT/GBT time in heterogeneous area due to gravity or viscous effect suppressed by heterogeneity effect. However, the lower order of Kv/Kh ratio (~ < 0.05) provide delay in WBT/GBT and lower WCT / GOR production due to viscous dominant flow which results in lower gravity-viscous number.


Kv/Kh ratio Anisotropy assessment Pressure transient analysis Miscible WAG Reservoir simulation model Stylolite layer Carbonate reservoir 



Horizontal to vertical permeability ratio


Original oil-in-place


Expected ultimate recovery


Pressure build-up test


Pressure fall off test


MultiMate test


Vertical interference test


Repeat formation tester


Modular formation dynamics testerSchlumberger


Special core analysis


Vertical permeability


Horizontal permeability


Packer probe


Reservoir rock type


Effective well length


Representative element volume


Water-alternative gas


High permeability streaks


Oil production rate (bbl/day)


Oil viscosity (cp)


Mobility ratio (μog)


Oil formation volume factor


Horizontal well length (ft)


Reservoir length


Porosity (fraction)


Horizontal permeability (md) in X direction


Horizontal permeability (md) in Y direction


Vertical permeability (md) in Z direction


Formation compressibility (1/psia)


Time (hours)


Time at which early radial flow and linear flow intersect


Reservoir thickness (ft)


Well eccentricity (horizontal well dimensionless location ad) = hw/h


Distance from no-flow boundary from horizontal length position = min (h1, h2)

h1 and h2

Distances from no flow boundaries to the horizontal well

D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5

Dense layers (stylolite intervals) of reservoir

M1, M2, M3, M4, M5, and M6

Porous layer of reservoir


Mobility ratio (μo/μg)


Vector of Darcy velocity


Dispersion tensor




Dimensionless gravity-viscous number


Heterogeneity number


Symmetric dispersion tensor, [L2t-1]


Vorticity, [t-1]

Differential operator, [L-1]


Length of the open zone between two straddle packers in VIT tool


Wellbore radius


Spherical wellbore of radius


Permeability in spherical flow regime


Time during spherical flow


Dimensionless time in spherical flow


Dimensionless pressure derivative in spherical flow


Logarithmic derivative in spherical flow


Logarithmic derivative in late radial flow



The authors gratefully acknowledge the management of KOC (Kuwait Oil Company), ZADCO (Zakum Development Company), and IIT-ISM (Indian Institute of Technology-Indian School of Mines) for their support and permission to publish this paper.


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Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kuwait Oil Company-KOCAl AhmadiKuwait
  2. 2.Indian Institute of Technology (ISM)DhanbadIndia

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