Advertisement

Comparison of crack processes in single-flawed rock-like material using two bonded–particle models under compression

  • Wei Sun
  • Shun-chuan WuEmail author
  • Yu Zhou
  • Jian-xin Zhou
Original Paper
  • 86 Downloads

Abstract

The parallel bond model (PBM), one type of basic bonded particle model (BPM), has been diffusely studied in natural rock and rock-like material. It is well-known that BPMs yield unrealistically low ratios of compressive to tensile strength (UCS/TS), friction angles and linear strength envelopes. The flat-joint model (FJM) overcomes those intrinsic deficiencies with a special structure. Thus, FJM can provide satisfactory replication of the mechanical behavior of rock-like materials. In this paper, rock-like material samples containing a single flaw were constructed with flaw angles of 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90° measured from the horizontal. The PBM and FJM were used to simulate this rock-like material. The results of the numerical simulations were compared with observations from physical tests, including strength, main types of microcracks, macroscopic fracture zones, and location and sequence of the first and secondary cracks. The results demonstrate that (1) the flaw inclination angle had a significant effect on strength; (2) the FJM results showed better agreement with respect to the main types of microcracks and macroscopic fracture zones, reproducing vertical tension failure dominance over shear failure in the rock-like material, contrary to the PBM results; and (3) using the FJM to capture the initiation location, direction, and sequence of the first and secondary cracks is recommended.

Keywords

Parallel bond model (PBM) Flat-joint model (FJM) Strength Microcracks Macroscopic fracture zones Uniaxial compression loading test 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would also like to thank Itasca for providing technical support for this article.

Funding information

Support was from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51774020).

References

  1. Bobet A (2000) The initiation of secondary cracks in compression. Eng Fract Mech 66(2):187–219.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0013-7944(00)00009-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bombolakis EG (1963) Photoelastic stress analysis of crack propagation within a compressive stress field. Ph.D. Thesis, Cambridge, pp 38Google Scholar
  3. Buffiere JY, Maire E, Adrien J, Masse JP, Boller E (2010) In situ experiments with X ray tomography: an attractive tool for experimental mechanics. Exp Mech 50(3):289–305.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11340-010-9333-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cai M, Kaiser P, Morioka H, Minami M, Maejima T, Tasaka Y, Kurose H (2007) FLAC/PFC coupled numerical simulation of AE in large-scale underground excavations. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 44:550–564.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2006.09.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Castro-Filgueira U, Alejano L, Arzúa J, Mas D (2016) Numerical simulation of the stress-strain behavior of intact granite specimens with particle flow code. Rock Mech Rock Eng:421–426.  https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315388502-72
  6. Chai JF, Jin AB, Wu SC (2015) Rock fracture mechanism and its evolution law of triaxial compression test based on P-T distribution diagram method. Electron J Geotech Eng 20(2 8):13451–13464Google Scholar
  7. Cho N, Martin CD, Sego DC (2007) A clumped particle model for rock. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 44(7):997–1010.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2007.02.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ding XB, Zhang LY (2014) A new contact model to improve the simulated ratio of unconfined compressive strength to tensile strength in bonded particle models. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 69:111–119.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2014.03.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Economides MJ, Martin T (2007) Modern fracturing: enhancing natural gas production. ET Publishing, HoustonGoogle Scholar
  10. Fan X, Kulatilake PHSW, Cen X, Cao P (2015a) Crack initiation stress and strain of jointed rock containing multi-cracks under uniaxial compressive loading: a particle flow code approach. J Cent South Univ 22(2):638–645.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11771-015-2565-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fan X, Kulatilake PHSW, Chen X (2015b) Mechanical behavior of rock-like jointed blocks with multi-non-persistent joints under uniaxial loading: a particle mechanics approach. Eng Geol 190:17–32.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2015.02.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Feng XT, Chen S, Zhou H (2004) Real-time computerized tomography (CT) experiments on sandstone damage evolution during triaxial compression with chemical corrosion. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 41(2):181–192.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1365-1609(03)00059-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gehle C, Kutter HK (2003) Breakage and shear behaviour of intermittent rock joints. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 40(5):687–700.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1365-1609(03)00060-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Grgic D, Amitrano D (2009) Creep of a porous rock and associated acoustic emission under different hydrous conditions. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 114:B10201.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JB004881 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. He MC, Miao JL, Feng JL (2010) Rock burst process of limestone and its acoustic emission characteristics under true-triaxial unloading conditions. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 47(2):286–298.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2009.09.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Itasca Consulting Group Inc (2015) Users’Manual for Particle Flow Code in 2 Dimensions (PFC), version 5.0. Minneapolis, MinnesotaGoogle Scholar
  17. Jin J, Cao P, Chen Y, Pu CZ, Mao DW, Fan X (2017) Influence of single flaw on the failure process and energy mechanics of rock-like material. Comput Geotech 86:150–162.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2017.01.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Katsaga T, Potyondy DO (2012) A generic stope model for investigation of fracturing mechanisms in deep gold mines. In: 46th U.S. rock mechanics/Geomechanics symposium (Chicago, IL,24–27 June 2012), paper ARMA 12–541Google Scholar
  19. Kawakata H, Cho A, Yanagidani T, Shimada M (1997) The observations of faulting in westerly granite under triaxial compression by X-ray CT scan. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 34(3–4):151–162.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s1365-1609(97)00138-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kawakata H, Cho A, Kiyama T, Yanagidani T, Kusunose K, Shimada M (1999) Three-dimensional observations of faulting process in westerly granite under uniaxial and triaxial conditions by X-ray CT scan. Tectonophysics 313(3):293–305.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-1951(99)00205-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kranz RL (1983) Microcracks in rocks: a review. Tectonophysics 100(1–3):449–480.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-1951(83)90198-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kulatilake PHSW, Malama B, Wang JL (2001) Physical and particle flow modeling of jointed rock block behaviour. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 38(5):641–657.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1365-1609(01)00025-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lajtai EZ (1974) Brittle fracture in compression. Int J Fract 10(4):525–536.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00155255 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lockner D (1993) The role of acoustic emission in the study of rock fracture. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 30(7):883–899.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(93)90041-B CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Manouchehrian A, Marji MF (2012) Numerical analysis of confinement effect on crack propagation mechanism from a flaw in a pre-cracked rock under compression. Acta Mech Sinica 28:1389–1397.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10409-012-0145-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mehranpour MH, Kulatilake PHSW (2016) Comparison of six major intact rock failure criteria using a particle flow approach under true-triaxial stress condition. Geomech Geophys Geo-Energ Geo-Resour 2(4):203–229.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40948-016-0030-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mehranpour MH, Kulatilake PHSW, Ma X, He M (2018) Development of new three-dimensional rock mass strength criteria. Rock Mech Rock Eng 51:1–25.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-018-1538-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nicksiar M, Martin CD (2012) Evaluation of methods for determining crack initiation in compression tests on low-porosity rocks. Rock Mech Rock Eng 45(4):607–617.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-012-0221-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Oldenburg CM, Benson SM (2002) CO2 injection for enhanced gas production and carbon sequestration. In: SPE International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition in Mexico, Society of Petroleum Engineers.  https://doi.org/10.2523/74367-MS
  30. Potyondy DO (2012) A flat-jointed bonded-particle material for hard rock. In: proc 46th US rock Mech/Geomech Symp (Chicago, USA, June 24-27, 2012), paper ARMA 12-501Google Scholar
  31. Potyondy DO (2013) PFC3D flat joint contact model version 1. Itasca Consulting Group[R]. Minneapolis, Technical Memorandum ICG7234-LGoogle Scholar
  32. Potyondy DO (2017) Simulating perforation damage with a flat-jointed bonded-particle material. In: Proc 46th US Rock Mech/Geomech Symp (California, USA, June 25-28, 2017), paper ARMA 17-223Google Scholar
  33. Potyondy DO, Cundall PA (2004) A bonded-particle model for rock. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 41(8):1329–1364.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2004.09.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Simmons G, Richter D (1976) Microcracks in rocks. In Strens RGJ (ed) The physics and chemistry of minerals and rocks. Wiley, New York, pp 105–137Google Scholar
  35. Wong LNY, Einstein HH (2006) Fracturing behavior of prismatic specimens containing single flaws. In: Golden Rocks 2006, The 41st US Symp on Rock Mech (USRMS), (Golden, Colorado, June 17-21, 2006), Paper ARMA/USRMS 06-899Google Scholar
  36. Wong LNY, Einstein HH (2008) Crack coalescence in molded gypsum and carrara marble: part 2—microscopic observations and interpretation. Rock Mech Rock Eng 42(3):513–545.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-008-0003-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wong LNY, Einstein HH (2009a) Process zone development associated with cracking processes in carrara marble. 9th International Conference On Analysis of Discontinues Deformation: New Developments and Applications, (Singapore, November 25-27, 2009), paper 581–588.  https://doi.org/10.3850/9789810844554-0076
  38. Wong LNY, Einstein HH (2009b) Systematic evaluation of cracking behavior in specimens containing single flaws under uniaxial compression. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 46(2):239–249.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2008.03.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wong LNY, Peng J, Teh CI (2018) Numerical investigation of mineralogical composition effect on strength and micro-cracking behavior of crystalline rocks. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 53:191–203.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2018.03.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wu SC, Xu XL (2015) A study of three intrinsic problems of the classic discrete element method using flat-joint model. Rock Mech Rock Eng 49(5):1813–1830.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-015-0890-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wu SC, Xu XL, Zhao W (2014) Stability analysis of jointed rock slope based on Particle Flow Code. In: Proceedings of the 3rd ISRM Young Scholars’ Symposium on Rock Mechanics, (Xi an, China, November 14-16, 2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wu HY, Kemeny J, Wu SC (2017) Experimental and numerical investigation of the punch-through shear test for mode II fracture toughness determination in rock. Eng Fract Mech 184:59–74.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engfracmech.2017.08.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Xu XL, Wu SC, Gao YT, Xu MF (2016) Effects of micro-structure and micro-parameters on Brazilian tensile strength using flat-joint model. Rock Mech Rock Eng 49(9):3575–3595.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-016-1021-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yan Q, Wu SC, Song WC, Bao DR, Yang ZW (2015) Analysis of tailings dam failure mechanisms based on a continuum-discrete coupling method. Int J Earth Sci Eng 8(4):1806–1814Google Scholar
  45. Yang SQ, Jiang YZ, Xu WY, Chen XQ (2008) Experimental investigation on strength and failure behavior of pre-cracked marble under conventional triaxial compression. Int J Solids Struct 45(17):4796–4819.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2008.04.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Yang XX, Kulatilake PHSW, Jing HW, Yang SQ (2015) Numerical simulation of a jointed rock block mechanical behavior adjacent to an underground excavation and comparison with physical model test results. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 50:129–142.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2015.07.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Yang XX, Kulatilake PHSW, Chen X, Jing HW, Yang SQ (2016) Particle flow modeling of rock blocks with non-persistent open joints under uniaxial compression. Int J Geomech 16(6):04016020.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GM.1943-5622.0000649 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Young RP, Martin CD (1993) Potential role of acoustic emission/microseismicity investigations in the site characterization and performance monitoring of nuclear waste repositories. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 30(7):797–803.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(93)90025-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zhang XP, Wong LNY (2012) Cracking processes in rock-like material containing a single flaw under uniaxial compression: a numerical study based on parallel bonded-particle model approach. Rock Mech Rock Eng 45(5):711–737.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-011-0176-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zhang XP, Wong LNY (2013) Crack initiation, propagation and coalescence in rock-like material containing two flaws: a numerical study based on bonded-particle model approach. Rock Mech Rock Eng 46:1001–1021.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-012-0323-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zhang YH, Wong LNY (2018) A review of numerical techniques approaching microstructures of crystalline rocks. Comput Geosci 115:167–187.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2018.03.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Zhang XP, Zhang Q (2017) Distinction of crack nature in brittle rock-like materials: a numerical study based on moment tensors. Rock Mech Rock Eng 50(10):1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-017-1263-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zhang XP, Zhang Q, Wu SC (2017) Acoustic emission characteristics of the rock-like material containing a single flaw under different compressive loading rates. Comput Geotech 83:83–97.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2016.11.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zhang XP, Ji PQ, Liu QS, Liu Q, Zhang Q, Peng ZH (2018) Physical and numerical studies of rock fragmentation subject to wedge cutter indentation in the mixed ground. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 71:354–365.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2017.09.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wei Sun
    • 1
  • Shun-chuan Wu
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Yu Zhou
    • 1
  • Jian-xin Zhou
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Efficient Mining and Safety of Metal MineUniversity of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingChina
  2. 2.Faculty of Land Resource EngineeringKunming University of Science and TechnologyKunmingChina

Personalised recommendations