Characterization of water chemistry in some communities of the Lower Tano river basin, Ghana, West Africa

  • A. K. M. EdjahEmail author
  • Bruce Banoeng-Yakubo
  • T. T. Akiti
  • Barbara Stenni
  • Giuliano Dreossi
  • K. Doku-Amponsah
Original Paper


The chemistry of surface water and groundwater in some communities of the Lower Tano river basin, which is a coastal region of Ghana, has been characterized. Based on the obtained analytical results, 80% of the surface water (rivers), 100% of the hand dug wells and 96% of the boreholes in the study area are generally fresh and soft. Silicate weathering is the main hydrogeochemical processes contributing to the Na+ ions and HCO3 ions in the groundwater of the basin. Gibbs diagram used to identify the mechanisms controlling the water chemistry of the basin reveals that rock weathering resulting from silicate and carbonate minerals controls majority of the surface water and groundwater chemistry in the basin. Piper trilinear plots and Chadha’s diagram, used in this study, indicate that ion exchange processes, reverse ion exchange and rock weathering are the main hydrogeochemical processes controlling the groundwater resources in the basin. Stable isotopic (δ2H and δ18O) composition measurements obtained from the study indicate that 30% of the surface water (rivers and lagoon) are less depleted and subjected to evaporation, while the remaining 70% is highly depleted with negligible to no evaporation. Also, the groundwater in the basin is likely recharged by direct infiltration of rainfall from the local rains of the basin together with other sources.


Hydrogeochemistry Isotopic studies Lower Tano river basin 



The authors would like to acknowledge Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Ghana; Ing Kwesi Asemone Edjah Techconsult, Accra, Ghana; the MP (Hon Armah Kofi Buah); the D.C.E (Mr Kwesi Bonzo); Ellembelle District; Staff of the Department of Environmental, Statistics and Informatics, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice Italy; Mr. Jones Bright Obeng (Community Water and Sanitation, Northern Region); and ICTP/IAEA Step Educational Program for their immense contribution.


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Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. K. M. Edjah
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bruce Banoeng-Yakubo
    • 2
  • T. T. Akiti
    • 3
  • Barbara Stenni
    • 4
  • Giuliano Dreossi
    • 5
  • K. Doku-Amponsah
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Nuclear Chemistry and Environmental Research Centre (Ghana Atomic Energy Commission) Ghana, Department of Earth SciencesUniversity of GhanaLegonGhana
  2. 2.Department of Earth ScienceUniversity of GhanaAccraGhana
  3. 3.Department of Nuclear Science and ApplicationsGraduate School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences (University of Ghana Legon)AccraGhana
  4. 4.Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and StatisticsCA’ Foscari University of VeniceVeniceItaly
  5. 5.Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes, National Research Council of ItalyMilanItaly
  6. 6.Statistics DepartmentUniversity of GhanaAccraGhana

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