Volume estimation and evaluation of rotational landslides using multi-temporal aerial photographs in Çağlayan dam reservoir area, Turkey
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Four landslide scarps in Neogene sedimentary rocks were observed in the Çağlayan dam reservoir area. This study aims to (1) estimate the volume of landslide material that slid into the dam reservoir area within 59-year period and (2) evaluate the reactivations with respect to triggering and predisposing factors such as slope gradient, precipitation, fire, and seismic activity. In this context, field survey was combined with innovative use of multi-temporal historical aerial photographs. Various methods of photogrammetry were employed on four sets of stereo aerial photographs (1953, 1970, 1995, 2012) to identify the boundaries of landslides, to generate digital elevation models (DEMs) from which cross-sectional data and slope maps were extracted. Volumes of landslides were estimated based on height differences between successive DEMs. Spatial mismatch and height errors between successive DEMs were minimized by image to image coregistration and height adjustment, respectively. The height adjustment technique was reevaluated and it was suggested to choose 11 sub-areas independent from the size and location. It is also recommended that the accuracy of the landslide boundaries interpreted from aerial photographs should be cross-checked by overlapped cross-sections of successive years to estimate the volume more precisely. A total volume of 121.78 × 104 m3 material collapsed whereas the largest volume moved in the period between 1953 and 1970 which was linked to a seismic event. Unconsolidated debris and weak rock layers are expected to fail in relation to water level fluctuations in the dam lake. The volume of sliding material will contribute to siltation and shorten the operational life of Çağlayan dam.
KeywordsAerial photograph Multi-temporal analyses Photogrammetry Rotational slide Volume estimation
The borehole data were provided from the General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works in Turkey. The aerial photographs were obtained from General Command of Mapping in Turkey. Precipitation, temperature, and earthquake records were derived from Turkish State Meteorological Service and Disaster & Emergency Management Authority Presidential of Earthquake Department, respectively. We would like to thank to Prof. Dr. Yusuf Kurucu for his assistance and contributions during the project and to the EMİ Group Information Technologies Corporation for collaboration in DEM generation from historical aerial photographs.
This research was funded by Dokuz Eylül University under the project number 2012.KB.FEN.044.
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