Advertisement

Structural assessment of the Bradost and Berat structures in Imbricate and High Folded zones—Iraqi Kurdistan Zagros belt

  • Hassan Ghazi Kakameen BalakiEmail author
  • Abdulla Amir Omar
Original Paper
  • 30 Downloads

Abstract

The Bradost and Berat anticlines are located within the Imbricate and High Folded zones of the NW segment of the Zagros fold-thrust belt, respectively, in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region. Two balanced cross-sections were built across these two anticlines, based on the integration of geological observations, few new available seismic, and well data, in order to unravel changes in the studied fold and fault architectures, from the surface to subsurface. The study aims to understand the sequential evolution of the Bradost and Berat thrusted anticlines. The studied sections imply that the Berat structure represents thrust-related anticline with pop-up geometry, whereas the Bradost structure comprises combination of two different geometries and styles of deformation along strike at each of the segments. So, the Bradost structure appears as a positive flower structure in one of the segments and as a ramp-related anticline in another segment. This structural phenomenon suggests development of two different segments instead of one embryonic anticline in the Bradost structure, which were later connected via transverse Hadar-Bekhme basement fault, during a progressive lateral growth of the two segments. The shortening values that were accommodated by the thrusts are ~ 991 m and ~ 553 m at the Bradost and Berat structures respectively. This variation in shortening is due to intensity of thrusting process which is higher in the Bradost structure than that in the Berat. The current study suggests that the underlying duplex structures below both Berat and Bradost structures are primarily responsible for the accommodation the potential uplifting of the studied structures, rather than the imbricate thrust system. Based on the obtained deformed geometry of the folds from the cross sections, the studied structures were decoupled within the Upper Paleozoic Ora Shale Formation. The overall deformed geometry of the cross sections indicates combination of thin- and thick-skinned deformation.

Keywords

Bradost and Berat structures Flower structure Shortening estimation Detachment surface Structural relief Duplex structure 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Kurdistan Regional Government for providing a few seismic and a well data. The constructive review and useful comments of two anonymous reviewers that helped to improve the revised manuscript are sincerely acknowledged. The Arabian Journal of Geosciences’ Assistant Editor Tavani Stefano is thanked for valuable suggestions on the manuscript.

References

  1. Agard P, Omrani J, Jolivet L, Mouthereau F (2005) Convergence history across Zagros(Iran): constraints from collisional and earlier deformation. Int J Earth Sci 94:401–419.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00531-005-0481-4
  2. Alavi M (1994) Tectonics of Zagros Orogenic Belt of Iran, new data and interpretation. Tectonophysics 229:211–238.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-1951(94)90030-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alavi M (2007) Structures of the Zagros fold–thrust belt in Iran. Am J Sci 307:1064–1095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ameen MS (1991) Possible forced folding in the Taurus-Zagros belt of North Iraq. Geol Mag 128:561–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ameen MS (1992) Effect of basement tectonics on hydrocarbon generation, migration and accumulation in northern Iraq. AAPG Bull 76:356–370Google Scholar
  6. Aqrawi AAM, Goff JC, Horbury AD, Sadooni FN (2010) The petroleum geology of Iraq. Statoil Scientific Press, 424pGoogle Scholar
  7. Awdal A, Healy D, Alsop GI (2016) Fracture patterns and petrophysical properties of carbonates undergoing regional folding: a case study from Kurdistan Iraq. Mar Pet Geol 71:149–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ballato P, Nowaczyk NR, Landgraf A, Strecker MR, Friedrich A, Tabatabaei SH (2008) Tectonic control on sedimentary facies pattern and sediment accumulation rates in the Miocene foreland basin of the southern Alborz Mountains, northern Iran. Tectonics 27:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barnhart WD, Brengman CMJ, Li S, Peterson KE (2018) Ramp-flat basement structures of the Zagros Mountains inferred from co-seismic slip and afterslip of the 2017 Mw7.3 Darbandikhan, Iran/Iraq earthquake. Earth Planet Sci Lett 496:96–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berberian M (1995) Master blind thrust faults hidden under the Zagros folds: active tectonics and surface morphotectonics. Tectonophysics 241:193–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berberian M, King GCP (1981) Towards a paleogeography and tectonic evolution of Iran. J Earth Sci 18:210–265.  https://doi.org/10.1139/e81-019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blanc EJP, Allen MB, Inger S, Hassani H (2003) Structural styles in the Zagros simple folded zone, Iran. J Geol Soc 160:401–412.  https://doi.org/10.1144/0016-764902-110
  13. Boyer SE (1992) Geometric evidence for synchronous thrusting in the southern Alberta and Northwest Montana thrust belt. In: McClay KR (ed) Thrust tectonics. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 377–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boyer SE, Elliot D (1982) Thrust systems. AAPG Bull 66:1196–1230Google Scholar
  15. Burberry CM (2015) The effect of basement fault reactivation on the Triassic-recent geology of Kurdistan, North Iraq. J Pet Geol 38(1):37–58Google Scholar
  16. Butler RWH (1987) Thrust sequences. J Geol Soc Lond 144:619–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Couzens BA, Dunne WM (1994) Displacement transfer at thrust termination: the Saltville thrust and Sinking Creek anticline, Virginia, U.S.A. J Struct Geol 16:781–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Csontos L, Sasvári A, Pocsai T, Kósa L, Salae A, Ali A (2012) Structural evolution of the northwestern Zagros, Kurdistan Region, Iraq: implications on oil migration. GeoArabia 17(2):81–116Google Scholar
  19. Dahlstrom CDA (1969) Balanced cross sections. Can J Earth Sci 6:743–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. De Mets C, Gordon RG, Argus DF, Stein S (1994) Effects of recent revision to the geomagnetic reversal time scale on estimates of current plate motions. Geophys Res Lett 21:2191–2194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. English JM, Lunn GA, Ferreira L, Yacu G (2015) Geologic evolution of the Iraqi Zagros, and its influence on the distribution of hydrocarbons in the Kurdistan Region. AAPG Bull 99(2):231–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Epard J, Groshong RH (1993) Excess area and depth to detachment. AAPG Bull 77:1219–1302Google Scholar
  23. Fakhari MD, Axen GJ, Horton BK, Hassanzadeh J, Amini A (2008) Revised age of proximal deposits in the Zagros foreland basin and implications for Cenozoic evolution of the High Zagros. Tectonophysics 451:170–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Falcon NL (1961) Major earth-flexuring in the Zagros Mountains of south-west Iran. Q J Geol Soc Lond 117:367–376.  https://doi.org/10.1144/gsjgs.117.1.0367
  25. Fossen H (2010) Structural geology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 463ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Frehner MD, Reif D, Grasemann B (2012) Mechanical versus kinematical shortening reconstructions of the Zagros High Folded Zone (Kurdistan Region of Iraq). Tectonics 31:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Golonka J (2004) Plate tectonic evolution of the southern margin of Eurasia in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Tectonophysics 381:235–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Groshong RH (2006) 3-D structural geology. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 324ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Harding TP (1985) Seismic characteristics and identification of negative, positive flower structure, and positive structural inversion. AAPG Bull 69(4):582–600Google Scholar
  30. Hinsch R, Bretis B (2015) A semi-balanced section in the northwestern Zagros region: constraining the structural architecture of the mountain front flexure in the Kirkuk Embayment, Iraq. GeoArabia 20:41–62Google Scholar
  31. Homke S, Verges J, van der Beek P, Fernandez M, Saura E, Barbero L, Badics B, Labrin E (2010) Insights in the exhumation history of the NW Zagros from bedrock and detrital apatite fission-track analysis: evidence for a long-lived orogeny. Basin Res 22:659–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Huang L, Liu C-Y (2017) Three types of flower structure in a divergent-wrench fault zone. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 122:10,478–10,497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jassim SZ (2006) Late Precambrian development of the Arabian Plate. In: Jassim SZ, Goff JC (eds) Geology of Iraq. Dolin, Prague Moravian Museum, Brno, pp 27–31Google Scholar
  34. Jassim SZ, Buday T (2006) Units of the unstable shelf and the Zagros suture. In: Jassim SZ, Goff JC (eds) Geology of Iraq. Dolin, Prague Moravian Museum, Brno, pp 71–84Google Scholar
  35. Jassim SZ, Goff JC (2006) Phanerozoic development of the northern Arabian Plate. In: Jassim SZ, Goff JC (eds) Geology of Iraq. Dolin, Prague Moravian Museum, Brno, pp 32–44Google Scholar
  36. Jassim SZ, Buday T, Cicha I, Prouza V (2006) Late Permian–Liassic megasequence AP6. Units of the unstable shelf and the Zagros suture. In: Jassim SZ, Goff JC (eds) Geology of Iraq. Dolin, Prague Moravian Museum, Brno, pp 91–103Google Scholar
  37. Jones PB (1971) Folded faults and sequence of thrusting in Alberta foothills. AAPG Bull 55:292–306Google Scholar
  38. Jones PB (1984) Sequence of backlimb thrusts and imbrications: implications for development of Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt. AAPG Bull 68:816–818Google Scholar
  39. Karim KH, Koyi H, Baziany MM, Hessami K (2011) Significance of angular unconformities between Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in the northwestern segment of the Zagros fold–thrust belt, Kurdistan. Geol Mag 148:925–939.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016756811000471 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Koshnaw RI, Horton BK, Stockli DF, Barber DE, Tamar-Agha MY, Kendall JJ (2017) Neogene shortening and exhumation of the Zagros fold-thrust belt and foreland basin in the Kurdistan region of northern Iraq. Tectonophysics.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2016.11.016
  41. Kramer D, List D, Tillman L, Jagiello K, Gould T (2004) Seismic and geologic evidence of complex “positive flower” structures along confining bends in strike slip faults, Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. SPE Asia Pacific Conference Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  42. Lawa FA, Koyi H, Ibrahim A (2013) Tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the NW segment of the Zagros fold-thrust belt, Kurdistan, NE Iraq. J Petrol Geol 36:75–96.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jpg.12543 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Marouf NZ (1999) Dynamic evolution of the sedimentary basins in Northern Iraq and hydrocarbon formation, migration and entrapment. Ph.D. thesis, Baghdad University, 245 pGoogle Scholar
  44. McClay KR (1995) The geometries and kinematics of inverted fault systems: a review of analogue model studies, in basin inversion. In: Buchanan JG and Buchanan PG Buchanan JG and Buchanan PG (eds) Basin inversion, Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ., 88, pp. 97–119Google Scholar
  45. McClay KR, Buchanan PG (1992) Thrust faults in inverted extensional basins. In: McClay KR (ed) Thrust tectonics. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 93–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. McMechan M (2012) Structural style and kinematic evolution of the Central Rocky Mountain foothills, British Columbia and Alberta. Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, GeoConvention 2012 Conference, Calgary-CanadaGoogle Scholar
  47. McQuarrie N (2004) Crustal scale geometry of the Zagros fold-thrust belt, Iran. J Struct Geol 26:519–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mitra S (1986) Duplex structures and imbricate thrust systems: geometry, structural position and hydrocarbon potential. AAPG Bull 70:1087–1112Google Scholar
  49. Mitra S (1990) Fault-propagation folds: geometry, kinematic evolution, and hydrocarbon traps. AAPG Bull 74:921–945Google Scholar
  50. Mitra S (1992) Balanced structural interpretations in fold and thrust belts. In: Mitra S, Fisher GW (eds) Structural geology of fold and thrust belts. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp 53–77Google Scholar
  51. Mitra S, Namson JS (1989) Equal-area balancing. Am J Sci 289:563–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Morley CK (1988) Out-of-sequence thrusts. Tectonics 7:539–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mouthereau F, Lacombe O, MEYER B (2006) The Zagros folded belt (Fars, Iran): constraints from topography and critical wedge modelling. Geophys J Int 165:336–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Navabpour P, Barrier E (2012) Stress states in the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt from passive margin to collisional tectonic setting. Tectonophysics 581:76–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Numan NMS (1984) Basement controls of stratigraphic sequences and structural patterns in Iraq. J Geol Soc Iraq 16:8–28Google Scholar
  56. Numan NMS (1997) A plate tectonic scenario for the Phanerozoic succession in Iraq. J Geol Soc Iraq 30:85–110Google Scholar
  57. Omar AA (2005) An integrated structural and tectonic study of the BinaBawi-Safin Bradost Region, Ph.D. thesis, Salahaddin University, 300 pGoogle Scholar
  58. Omar AA, Syan SH (2016) Construction of a structural model for Harir anticline within Zagros fold-thrust belt, Kurdistan Iraq. Zanco J Pure Appl Sci 28(6):90–105.  https://doi.org/10.21271/ZJPAS.28.6.12 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Poblet J, Lisle RJ (2011) Kinematic evolution and structural styles of fold-and-thrust belts. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 349:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sadeghi S, Yassaghi A (2016) Spatial evolution of Zagros collision zone in Kurdistan, NW Iran: constraints on Arabia-Eurasia oblique convergenceGoogle Scholar
  61. Scisciani V (2009) Styles of positive inversion tectonics in the Central Apennines and in the Adriatic foreland: implications for the evolution of the Apennine chain (Italy). J Struct Geol 31:1–19.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2009.02.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sharland PR, Archer R, Casey DM, Davies RB, Hall SH, Heward AP, Horbury AD, Simmons MD (2001) Arabian Plate sequence stratigraphy.GeoArabia, Special Publication 2, Gulf Petro Link, Manama, 371 pGoogle Scholar
  63. Shaw JH, Bilotti F, Brennan PH (1999) Patterns of imbricate thrusting. AAPG Bull 111:1140–1154Google Scholar
  64. Shaw JH, Connors C, Suppe J (2005) Seismic interpretation of contractional fault-related folds: an AAPG seismic atlas. AAPG Stud Geol 53:156Google Scholar
  65. Sibson RH (1995) Selective fault reactivation during basin inversion: potential for fluid redistribution through fault-valve action. In: Buchanan JG and Buchanan PG Buchanan JG and Buchanan PG (eds) Basin inversion, Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ., vol 88, pp 3–19Google Scholar
  66. Sibson RH (2004) Frictional mechanics of seismogenic thrust systems in the upper continental crust—implications for fluid overpressures and redistribution. In: McClay KR(ed) Thrust tectonics and hydrocarbon systems: AAPG Memoir, vol 82, pp 1–17Google Scholar
  67. Sissakian VK (2013) Geological evolution of the Iraqi Mesopotamia Foredeep, inner platform and near surroundings of the Arabian Plate. J Asian Earth Sci 72:152–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Stampfli GM, Borel GD (2002) A plate tectonic model for the Paleozoic and Mesozoic constrained by dynamic plate boundaries and restored synthetic oceanic isochrones. Earth Planet Sci Lett 196:17–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Suppe J (1985) Principles of structural geology. Prentice - Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 537pGoogle Scholar
  70. Tavani S, Parente M, Puzone F, Corradetti A, Gharabeigli G, Valinejad M, Morsalnejad D, Mazzoli S (2018a) The seismogenic fault system of the 2017 Mw 7.3 Iran-Iraq earthquake: constraints from surface and subsurface data, cross-section balancing and restoration. Solid Earth Discuss 9:821–831.  https://doi.org/10.5194/se-2018-21 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tavani S, Parente M, Vitale S, Iannace A, Corradetti A, Bottini C, Morsalnejad D & Mazzoli S (2018b) Early Jurassic rifting of the Arabian passive continental margin of the Neo-Tethys. Field evidence from the Lurestan region of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt, Iran, Iran. Tectonics.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2018TC005192
  72. Trocme V, Albouy E, Callot J, Letouzey J (2011) 3D structural modelling of the southern Zagros fold-and-thrust belt diapiric province. Geol Mag 148:879–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. van Bellen RC, Dunnington HV, Wetzel R, Morton DM (1959) Stratigraphic lexicon of Iraq. Lexique Stratigraphique International. 03 10 Asie, (Iraq). CNRS Paris, 333 pGoogle Scholar
  74. Van der Pluijm BA, Marshak S (2004) Earth structure: an introduction to structural geology and tectonics. WCB/Mc Graw-Hill, USA, pp 468–479Google Scholar
  75. Verges J, Goodarzi MGH, Emami H, Karpuz R, Efstathiou J, Gillespie P (2011a) Multiple detachment folding in Pusht-e-Kuh arc, Zagros: role of mechanical stratigraphy. In: McClay K, Shaw JH, Suppe J (eds) Thrust fault-related folding, AAPG Memoir, vol 94, pp 69–94Google Scholar
  76. Verges J, Saura E, Casciello E, Fernàndez M, Villaseñor A, Jiménez-Munt I, García-Castellanos D (2011b) Crustal-scale cross-sections across the NW Zagros belt: implications for the Arabian margin reconstruction. Geol Mag 148(5–6):739–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Woodward NB, Boyer SE, Suppe J (1989) Balanced geological cross-sections: an essential technique in geological research and exploration. Short Course in Geology, Washington, DC. American Geophysical Union, v. 6, 132pGoogle Scholar
  78. Yamada Y, McClay K (2004) 3-D analog modeling of inversion thrust structures. In: McClay KR (ed) Thrust tectonics and hydrocarbon systems, AAPG Memoir, vol 82, pp 276–301Google Scholar
  79. Zebari M, Burberry CM (2015) 4D evolution of anticlines and implications for hydrocarbon exploration within the Zagros fold thrust belt, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. GeoArabia 20(1):161–188Google Scholar
  80. Zebari M, Navabpour P, Grützner C, Ustaszewski (2018) Surface deformation related to the 12 November 2017 Iran-Iraq border earthquake (MW 7.3) and its aftershocks: insights from in SAR Data. 17th TSK International Conference, Jena-GermanyGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hassan Ghazi Kakameen Balaki
    • 1
    Email author
  • Abdulla Amir Omar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geology, College of ScienceSalahaddin UniversityErbilIraq

Personalised recommendations