Advertisement

Land subsidence and soil cracks monitoring by surveying on the clayey plain soils in Central Iran (case study: Yazd City)

  • Peyman AminEmail author
  • Mohammad Akhavan Ghalibaf
  • Mohammad Hosseini
Original Paper

Abstract

Land subsidence and soil crack has become a global problem and cases of subsidence have been identified in many places around the world. The studied area is clayey plain lands, located in the east of the city of Yazd. In this area, two types of soil crack are created, such as longitudinal and polygonal. To show the land micro movements, as a result of soil diversity after surface wetting and drying intervals, this experiment was done. Direct surveying, soil mechanical and crystal-chemical measurements were essential method of the research. The results showed that all index points were moved in different directions to about 2.3 cm during 11 months. The geochemical and crystal-chemical processes as neoformation of duripan features from amorphous silica in subsurface, where is petrocalsic horizon, have created permanent cracks. The soils according to Soil Taxonomy are Vertisols, and because of aridic soil moisture regime, petrocalcic horizon and duripan have been classified in Leptic Calcitorrerts subgroups. The gilgai formation is the result of soil moisturing and drying alternation in wet and dry months. Because of unstable land in this area, avoiding urban and rural developments is recommended.

Keywords

Surface movement Land subsidence Soil crack Surveying Geochemical 

References

  1. Akhavanghalibaf M (2008) Clay forming by smectite groups in old alluvial soils in Yazd. 17th congress of crystallography and mineralogy, Iran-Hamedan. (In Persian)Google Scholar
  2. Akhavanghalibaf M, Bidaki H (2017) Radom mix interlayer clays in soils and land sliding in Iran flats. The materials of Russian soils study. Saint Petersburg State University Saint Petersburg Vol. 8, No. 36, pp. 315–319. (In Russian)Google Scholar
  3. Akhavanghalibaf M, Mohammadi S (2010) Development of clay minerals on old and new alluvial deposits of Quaternary geology in Yazd-Ardakan plain as a key in climate stratigraphic and paleontology in Yazd. 19th congress of crystallography and mineralogy, Iran-Gorgan. (In Persian)Google Scholar
  4. Aminihosseini K (1993) Land subsidence caused by presence of canals and underground spaces. Journal of Sharif civil, Sharif University, Tehran. (In Persian)Google Scholar
  5. Asghari A (1995) Comparing of different standards of chemical identification of dispersive clays. Technical Faculty of Tehran University, TehranGoogle Scholar
  6. Beaumont CP, Fullsack HJ (1994) Styles of crustal deformation in compressional orogens caused by subduction of the underlying lithosphere. Techtonophyscs, No 232:119–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. D’Hoore JL (1964) Soil map of Africa, scale 1 to 5000000, LAGOS. Commission for Technical Co-operation in Africa. 205pGoogle Scholar
  8. Department of Meteorology of Yazd province (2015) Iran meteorological OrganizationGoogle Scholar
  9. Dixon JB, Weed SB (1992) Minerals in soil environments. In: Soil Science Society of America Book series publication, 2nd edn 1244pGoogle Scholar
  10. Ekhtesasi MR (1996) A study for ascertaining the origin of sand dunes in Yazd-Ardakan plain. Research Institute of forests and Rangelands. (In Persian)Google Scholar
  11. Esnaashari M (1994) Experimental review of some physical parameters effect on dispersive amount of clay. Technical Faculty of Tehran University, TehranGoogle Scholar
  12. Gee GW, Bauder JW (1986) Particle size analysis. In: Klute (ed) Methods of soil analysis. Part 1. 2nd edition. Agron. Monogr, vol 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI, pp 404–407Google Scholar
  13. Golden ML (2014) Keys to soil taxonomy. 2014. By Soil Survey Staff. United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service. 12nd Edition 372pGoogle Scholar
  14. Hajmollaali A, Majidifard MR (2000) Geological survey of Iran, geology map of Yazd (1:100000)Google Scholar
  15. Khaksarnajafi E, Faghihmaleki H (2016) The effect of suffusion phenomenon in the increasing of land subsidence rate. Civil Eng J 2(7):316–323Google Scholar
  16. Komakpanah A (2007) Study ground failure causes in Yazd-Ardakan roads. Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (In Persian)Google Scholar
  17. Lofgren BE (1969) Field measurement of aquifer system Compaction. San Joaquin Valley, California, USA. Proc. Tokyo Sump. On Land Subsidence, IASH_UNESCO. 272–284Google Scholar
  18. Mortezaei H, Karimpour-Fard M (2017) Variation of the hydraulic conductivity of clayey soils in exposure to organic permeants. Civil Eng J 3(11):1036–1047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mousavimadah SM, Ghafouri M, Lashgaripour GR, Solmeh A (2011) Investigating land subsidence and its impact on casing failure wells within the city of Mashhad. J Irrigation and Water 4:13 (In Persian)Google Scholar
  20. Pachecomartinez et al (2006) Delimitation of ground failure zones due to land subsidence using gravity data and finite element modeling in the Querétaro valley, México. J. Eng Geol 84:143–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Phienwej N, Giao PH, Nutalaya P (2006) Land subsidence in Bangkok, Thailand. J Eng Geol 82:187–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Qu et al (2014) Land subsidence and ground fissures in Xi’an, China 2005-2012 revealed by multi-band InSAR time-series analysis. J Remote Sens Environ 155:366–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rahimi H, Delfi M (1993) “New chemical method for evaluation of soil dispersivity”, Proc of the second International Seminar on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering of Iran. 199–218Google Scholar
  24. Rahnama MB, Moafi H (2010) Investigation of land subsidence due to groundwater withdraw in Rafsanjan plain using GIS software, Iran. Geotech Geol Eng 2:241–246Google Scholar
  25. Romeronavarro et al (2010) Land subsidence in Aguascalientes Valley, Mexico. Historical review and present situation. IAHS publication 339. Proceedings of Eight International Symposium on Land Subsidence, IAHS Press, U.K. 207–209Google Scholar
  26. Schoeneberger PJ, Wysocki DA, Benham EC, Soil Survey Staff (2012) Field book for describing and sampling soils, version 3.0. Natural Resources Conservation Service, National Soil Survey Center, Lincoln, NEGoogle Scholar
  27. Scott RF (1979) Subsidence-revaluation and prediction of subsidence. Saxema, SK, Ed, Proc. Cnof. ASCE, Gainsville. 1–25Google Scholar
  28. Spagnoli G, Fernandez-Steeger T, Feinendegen M, Azzam R, Stanjek H (2011) Influence of the dielectric constant, electrolyte concentration and pH of the pore fluids on the shear strength of monomineralic clays. Ital J Geotechnics:11–24Google Scholar
  29. Yazd Regional Water Authority (2015) Iranian ministry of energy. Yazd Province, IranGoogle Scholar
  30. Zaremehrjardi AA (2009) Investigating land subsidence and fractures phenomenon in Rostaq in south of Meybod City. J Geogr Environ Plann 3:155–166 (In Persian)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peyman Amin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohammad Akhavan Ghalibaf
    • 2
  • Mohammad Hosseini
    • 3
  1. 1.Desert Management, Faculty of Natural Resources and DesertYazd UniversityYazdIran
  2. 2.Soil Science Faculty of Natural Resources and DesertYazd UniversityYazdIran
  3. 3.Preceptor of Geodesy, Department of Civil EngineeringYazd UniversityYazdIran

Personalised recommendations