Campanian–Maastrichtian unconformities and rudist diagenesis, Aruma Formation, central Saudi Arabia

  • Sacit ÖzerEmail author
  • Abdelbaset S. El-Sorogy
  • Mohammad E. Al-Dabbagh
  • Khaled Al-Kahtany
Original Paper


The Upper Cretaceous Aruma Formation is widely distributed in central Saudi Arabia and consists of three members, from base to top, the Khanasir Limestone Member, the Hajajah Limestone Member, and the Lina Shale Member. It disconfomably overlies the Cenomanian Wasia Formation (middle Turonian, the “Wasia-Aruma break”). Two unconformities were recorded within and at the top of the Aruma Formation: (a) “the lower Campanian unconformity” between the Khanasir Limestone Member and the Hajajah Limestone Member and (b) “the pre-Cenozoic unconformity” between the Lina Shale Member and the Paleogene Umm er Radhuma Formation. The comparison between these unconformities and those recorded on the Arabian Plate was emphasized. A lenticular rudist biostrome in the uppermost part of the Khanasir Limestone Member consists mainly of the radiolitids and sparse canaliculated rudists in life position. However, rudists are entirely fragmented in the lower limestone and are very rare in the upper limestone of the Hajajah Limestone Member. Loose right valves of radiolitids from the Campanian Khanasir Member have underwent diagenetic alterations, such as fragmentation and compaction, micritization, bioerosion, and micritic calcite cement, which indicates marine diagenetic stage, while very limited silicification, dolomitization, and dissolution suggest the meteoric diagenetic environments with arid climates. Isopachus and equant calcite cement and neomorphism may be showed the fresh pharetic zone related with subaerial unconformities.


Aruma Formation Upper Cretaceous Unconformities Diagenesis Rudist bivalves Saudi Arabia 



The authors would like to extend their sincere appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at the King Saud University for funding this work through research group no. (RG-1438-060). We thank Dr. Hatice Yılmaz (Dokuz Eylul University, İzmir) for XRD analysis and interpretations; Winton Cornell (The University of Tulsa) for comments on XRD analysis; Ibukun Bode-Omoleye (Oklahoma State University) for English corrections of the text; and Dr. Cüneyt Akal and Dr. Toygar Akar from the Dokuz Eylul University, İzmir, for formatting the figures. The authors would like to thank Dr. Robert W. Scott (The University of Tulsa) for his constructive suggestions and English corrections of the text and to two anonymous reviewers that improved the quality of the study. We are also grateful to Dr. Bruno Granier (Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest) for his valuable comments on the text.


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Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sacit Özer
    • 1
    Email author
  • Abdelbaset S. El-Sorogy
    • 2
    • 3
  • Mohammad E. Al-Dabbagh
    • 2
  • Khaled Al-Kahtany
    • 2
  1. 1.Geological Engineering Department, Engineering FacultyDokuz Eylul UniversityİzmirTurkey
  2. 2.Geology and Geophysics Department, College of ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Geology Department, Faculty of ScienceZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt

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