Sugarcane waste straw biochar and its effects on calcareous soil and agronomic traits of okra
- 60 Downloads
Biochar has been considered a safe soil additive to enhance soil fertility and agronomic traits of different crops. This study was conducted to explore the impacts of sugarcane waste straw biochar on soil characteristics and some agronomic traits of okra. The experiment was carried out with four treatments, i.e., control, sugarcane waste straw biochar (10 ton ha−1), farmyard manure (FYM, 10 ton ha−1), and chemical fertilizers (NPK; 120:100:80 kg ha−1) having three replications of each treatment. Soil samples were tested for texture, bulk density, particle density, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter content, nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), and extractable-P. The sugarcane waste straw biochar was characterized for plant major nutrient elements. The impact of various treatments was observed on soils and agronomic traits of okra like plant height, fruit size, fruit length, and yield of okra. Results revealed that sugarcane waste straw biochar expressed higher EC value and noticeable amounts of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sulfur (S), and magnesium (Mg). The sugarcane waste straw biochar, in comparison with FYM and NPK, significantly improved the NO3-N, extractable-P, OM and EC of the calcareous soil, and reduced the soil bulk density. Furthermore, plant growth and yield parameters were significantly improved under biochar application over the control, FYM and NPK. Overall, sugarcane waste straw biochar proved to be a good alternative to conventional organic and inorganic fertilizers under calcareous soil conditions.
KeywordsOrganic waste Crop residues Organic amendment Nitrate nitrogen Extractable-P
The authors specially thanks Professor Dr. Zhu Shuijin and Li from Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China for their help in the scanning electron microscopy.
This study was funded by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, Startup Research Grant, project No. 393.
- Adekayode FO, Olojugba MR (2010) The utilization of wood ash as manure to reduce the use of mineral fertilizer for improved performance of okra as measured in the chlorophyll content and grain yield. J Soil Sci Environ Manage 1:40–45Google Scholar
- Agusalim M, Wani HU, Syechfani MS (2010) Rice husk biochar for rice based cropping system in acid soil: the characteristics of rice husk biochar and its influence on the properties of acid sulfate soils and rice growth in West Kalimantan. Ind J Agric Sci 2:39–47Google Scholar
- Amonette J, Joseph S (2009) Characteristics of biochar micro – chemical properties. In: Lehman J, Joseph S (eds) Biochar for environmental management – science and technology. Earthscan, London, UKGoogle Scholar
- Blake GR, Hartage K (1984) Bulk density and particle density. In: A. Klute (ed.). Method of soil analysis. Part 1. Physical and mineralogical method. 2nd ed. American Society of Agronomy Inc. Madism, WI, USA. pp: 363–376Google Scholar
- Downie A, Crosky A, Munroe P (2009) Physical properties of biochar. Biochar for environmental management: science and technology 13–32Google Scholar
- Glaser B, Lehmann J, Steiner C, Nehls T, Yousaf M, Zech W (2002) Potential of pyrolyzed organic matter in soil amelioration. In 12th ISCO Conference’. Beijing (pp. 421–427)Google Scholar
- Liu XH, Zhang XC (2012) Effect of biochar on pH of alkaline soils in the loess plateau: results from incubation experiments. Int J Agric Biol 14:745–750Google Scholar
- Nelson DW, Sommer LE (1982) Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In: Pager, A. L., R. H. Hiller and D. R. Keenay (ed.) Methods of soil analysis, Part II. 2nd ed. Am Soc Agron 9:477–539Google Scholar
- Olsen SR, Cole CV, Watanabe FS, Dean LA (1954) Estimation of available phosphorous in soil by extraction with sodium bicarbonate, USDA Circular p 939Google Scholar
- Rehman MZ, Rizwan M, Ali S, Fatima N, Yousaf B, Naeem A, Sabir M, Ahmad HR, Ok YS (2016) Contrasting effects of biochar, compost and farm manure on alleviation of nickel toxicity in maize (Zea mays L.) in relation to plant growth, photosynthesis and metal uptake. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 133:218–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rehman MZ, Rizwan M, Ali S, Naeem A, Yousaf B, Liu G, Saifullah KH, Azhar M (2018a) A field study on the effects of phosphorus alone and combined with organic amendments on growth and cadmium accumulation in wheat and subsequent rice receiving raw effluents. Arab J Geosci 11:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ryan J, Estefan G, Rashid A (2001) Soil and plant analysis. Laboratory manual. International Centre for Agriculture Research in the dry areas, Aleppo, SyriaGoogle Scholar
- Siemonsma JS (1982) The cultivation of okra (Abelmoschus spp.), [tropical fruit]-vegetable (with special reference to the Ivory coast). D.H.O, thesis Wageningen Agricultural Wageningen, The Netherland, p 297Google Scholar
- Steel RGD, Torrie JH, Discky DA (1997) Principles and procedures of statistics: a biometrical approach, 3rd (ed.) edn. McGraw Hill Book Co, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
- Ueckert DN, Whigham TL, Spears BM (1978) Effect of burning on infiltration, sediment, and other soil properties in a mesquite: tobosagrass community. J Range Manage 1:420–425Google Scholar
- Verheijen F, Jeffery S, Bastos AC, van der Velde M, Diafas I (2009) Biochar application to soils, a critical scientific review of effects on soil properties, processes and functions (Office for the Official Publ. of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 2009)Google Scholar
- William K, Qureshi RA (2015) Evaluation of biochar as fertilizer for the growth of some seasonal vegetables. J Biores Manage 2:41–46Google Scholar