Physical simulation of mining effect caused by a fault tectonic

  • Pu WangEmail author
  • Lishuai JiangEmail author
  • Xiaoyu Li
  • Guangpeng Qin
  • Eryu Wang
Original Paper


Due to faults occurring universally and being harmful to coal production, the study of mining effects on faults is significant for predicting rock bursts in coalmines. In this paper, a physical simulation test is conducted, which can intuitively recreate the macroscopic movement of overlying strata. Then, mining effects on fault activation slipping and the responses of abutment stress of coal body and fault plane are studied. The results demonstrate that fault activates and aggravates gradually prior to passing, which leads to abutment stress in the footwall coal rise. This causes the footwall strata to move, and this displacement is large. After just passing the fault, the hanging wall strata slip along the fault plane, which can lead to increasing abutment stress of the hanging wall coal; however, the hanging wall strata move slightly, and this displacement is relatively small. Hence, the fault can be activated and slip prominently in a fault-affected zone, thereby easily inducing rock bursts. Finally, a field case regarding microseismic monitoring is used to verify the simulation results; these can serve as a reference for predicting rock bursts and their classification into hazardous areas under similar conditions.


Physical simulation Mining effect Fault tectonic Fault slipping Rock burst 


Funding information

The study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (nos. 51574155, 51704182, and 51804182), Scientific Research Foundation of Shandong University of Science and Technology for Recruited Talents (no. 2015RCJJ057), and Shandong Provincial Key R & D Plan (Public Welfare Special Program) of China (no. 2017GGX20125).


  1. Bischoff M, Cete A, Fritschen R, Meier T (2010) Coal mining induced seismicity in the Ruhr area, Germany. Pure Appl Geophys 167:63–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bornyakov SA, Panteleev IA, Tarasova AA (2016) Dynamics of intrafault deformation waves: results of physical simulation. Dokl Earth Sci 471:1316–1318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen XH, Lyu PF, Song WH, Deng CS (2016) Analysis and control technology of danger of rock burst when fully mechanized caving passing through fault. China Safety Sci J 26:81–87 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  4. Dai HY, Lian XG, Liu JY, Liu YX, Zhou YM, Deng WN, Cai YF (2010) Model study of deformation induced by fully mechanized caving below a thick loess layer. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 47:1027–1033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dou ZS, Wu JW, Wang L, Zhai XR, Li WQ, Lu L, Ma YZ (2017) Similar physical simulation on the deformation of surrounding rocks of floor roadway caused by coal mining under tectonic stress. J Eng Sci Technol Rev 10:132–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gong W, Peng YY, Wang H, He MC, Sousa L (2015) Fracture angle analysis of rock burst faulting planes based on true-triaxial experiment. Rock Mech Rock Eng 48:1017–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. He J, Jing CS, Chen XS, Jing FX (2010) Numerical simulation research on stress distribution of coal bed fault structure formation and evolution. J Henan Polytechn Univ (Natural Science) 29:1–6 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  8. Huang BX, Liu CY, Xu JL (2009) Effect of little fault in working face on water conducted fissure height. J China Coal Soc 34:1316–1321 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  9. Jiang YD, Wang T, Zhao YX, Wang WJ (2013) Experimental study on the mechanisms of fault reactivation and coal bumps induced by mining. J Coal Sci Eng 19:507–513 (in Chinese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jiang LS, Wang P, Zhang PP, Zheng PP, Xu B (2017) Numerical analysis of the effects induced by normal faults and dip angles on rock bursts. Compte Rendu Mecanique 345:690–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jiang JQ, Wang P, Jiang LS, Zheng PQ, Feng F (2018) Numerical simulation on mining effect influenced by a normal fault and its induced effect on rock burst. Geomech Eng 14:337–344Google Scholar
  12. Lai XP, Shan PF, Cao JT, Cui F, Sun H (2016) Simulation of asymmetric destabilization of mine-void rock masses using a large 3D physical model. Rock Mech Rock Eng 49:487–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Li, H. C. 1988. Similar simulation test for ground pressure. China Univ Min Technol Press, Xuzhou, pp. 103(in Chinese)Google Scholar
  14. Li ZH, Dou LM, Lu CP, Mou ZL, Cao AY (2008) Study on fault induced rock bursts. Int J Min Sci Technol 18:321–326Google Scholar
  15. Li ZL, Dou LM, Cai W, Wang GF, Jiang H, Ding YL, Kong Y (2016) Mechanical analysis of static stress within fault-pillars based on a voussoir beam structure. Rock Mech Rock Eng 49:1097–1105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Liu YK, Zhou FB, Liu L, Liu C, Hu SY (2011) An experimental and numerical investigation on the deformation of overlying coal seams above double seam extraction for controlling coal mine methane emissions. Int J Coal Geol 87:139–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Peng JB, Chen LW, Huang QB, Men YM, Fan W, Yan JK (2013) Physical simulation of ground fissures triggered by underground fault activity. Eng Geol 155:19–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sainoki A, Mitri HS (2014) Methodology for the interpretation of fault-slip seismicity in a weak shear zone. J Appl Geophys 110:126–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sainoki A, Mitri HS (2015) Effect of slip-weakening distance on selected seismic source parameters of mining-induced fault-slip. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 73:115–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sherizadeh T, Kulatilake PHSW (2016) Assessment of roof stability in a room and pillar coal mine in the U.S. using three-dimensional distinct element method. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 59:24–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Shreedharan S, Kulatilake PHSW (2016) Discontinuum-equivalent continuum analysis of the stability of tunnels in a deep coal mine using the distinct element method. Rock Mech Rock Eng 49:1903–1922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wang AW, Pan YS, Li ZH, Liu CS, Han RJ, Lv XF, Lu HQ (2014a) Similar experimental study of rock burst induced by mining deep coal seam under fault action. Rock Soil Mech 35:2486–2492 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  23. Wang T, Wang ZH, Jiang YD, Wang WJ (2014b) Experimental study of stress distribution and evolution of surrounding rock under the influence of fault slip induced by mining. J China Univ Min Technol 43:587–592 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  24. Wang W, Cheng YP, Wang HF, Liu HY, Wang L, Li W, Jiang JY (2015a) Fracture failure analysis of hard-thick sandstone roof and its controlling effect on gas emission in underground ultrathick coal extraction. Eng Fail Anal 54:150–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wang C, Zhang NC, Han YF, Qian DY (2015b) Experiment research on overburden mining-induced fracture evolution and its fractal characteristics in ascending mining. Arab J Geosci 8:13–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wang P, Jiang JQ, Zhang PP, Wu QL (2016) Breaking process and mining stress evolution characteristics of a high-position hard and thick stratum. Int J Min Sci Technol 26:563–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wang P, Jiang LS, Zheng PQ (2017) Application of equivalent materials to modeling fractures in the vicinity of a normal fault in the area of mining exploitation influence. Acta Geodyn Geomater 14:475–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wang P, Jiang LS, Jiang JQ, Zheng PQ, Li W (2018) Strata behaviors and rock burst–inducing mechanism under the coupling effect of a hard, thick stratum and a normal fault. Int J Geomech 18:04017135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wu JW, Tong HS, Tong SJ, Tang DQ (2007) Study on similar material for simulation of mining effect of rock mass at fault zone. Chin J Rock Mech Eng 26:4170–4175 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  30. Xia YX, Wang JH, Mao DB (2016) Analysis of fault activation induced rock burst risk based on in-situ stress measurements. J China Coal Soc 41:3008–3015Google Scholar
  31. Xia BW, Jia JL, Yu B, Zhang X, Li XL (2017) Coupling effects of coal pillars of thick coal seams in large-space stopes and hard stratum on mine pressure. Int J Min Sci Technol 27:965–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Xie J, Zhu W, Xu JL, Wen JH, Liu CZ (2016) A study on the bearing effect of pier column backfilling in the goaf of a thin coal seam. Geosci J 20:361–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Xing Y, Kulatilake PHSW, Sandbak LA (2018a) Investigation of rock mass stability around the tunnels in an underground mine in USA using three-dimensional discontinuum numerical modeling. Rock Mech Rock Eng 51:579–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Xing Y, Kulatilake PHSW, Sandbak LA (2018b) Effect of rock mass and discontinuity mechanical properties and delayed rock supporting on tunnel stability in an underground mine in USA. Eng Geol 238:62–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Xuan DY, Xu JL (2017) Longwall surface subsidence control by technology of isolated overburden grout injection. Int J Min Sci Technol 27:813–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zhang SC, Guo WJ, Sun WB, Li YY, Wang HL (2015) Experimental research on extended activation and water inrush of concealed structure in deep mining. Rock Soil Mech 36:3111–3120 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  37. Zhang SC, Guo WJ, Li YY, Sun WB, Yin DW (2017) Experimental simulation of fault water inrush channel evolution in a coal mine floor. Mine Water Environ 36:443–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zuo JP, Chen ZH, Wang HW, Liu XP, Wu ZP (2009) Experimental investigation on fault activation pattern under deep mining. J China Coal Soc 34:305–309 (in Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Resources and Civil EngineeringShandong University of Science and TechnologyTai’anChina
  2. 2.National Engineering Laboratory for Coalmine Backfilling MiningShandong University of Science and TechnologyTai’anChina
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Mining Disaster Prevention and Control Co–founded by Shandong Province and the Ministry of Science and TechnologyShandong University of Science and TechnologyQingdaoChina
  4. 4.State Key Laboratory of Geomechanics & Deep Underground EngineeringChina University of Mining & TechnologyBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations