A field study investigating the potential use of phosphorus combined with organic amendments on cadmium accumulation by wheat and subsequent rice

  • Muhammad Zia ur RehmanEmail author
  • Muhammad Rizwan
  • Shafaqat Ali
  • Asif Naeem
  • Balal Yousaf
  • Guijian Lui
  • Hinnan Khalid
  • Saifullah
  • Farhan Hafeez
  • Muhammad Azhar
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Implications of Biochar Application to Soil Environment under Arid Conditions


A field study was performed to determine the efficiency of diammonium phosphate (DAP) applied alone or combined with biochar, lignite, and farmyard manure (FYM) on growth and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in wheat and rice. Before crop sowing, different treatments were applied in the field such as a control (T1), DAP alone (0.1%, T2), DAP + lignite (0.05% each, T3), DAP + FYM (0.05% each, T4), and DAP + biochar (0.05% each, T5). Afterwards, the wheat seeds were sown in the soil. At wheat postharvest, rice was sown without any further treatment. Raw effluent was applied as an irrigation source during the whole growth period of both crops since it is the common practice of the farmers of study area. It was revealed that the use of amendments enhanced the yield and photosynthesis but lowered the Cd contents in straw as well as grains of both crops. In both crops, the highest yield of straw and grain was found in DAP + FYM whereas the lowest Cd concentration was found in DAP alone. The ammonium bicarbonate-DTPA extractable Cd of post wheat and post rice soils were decreased while the soil pH and immobilization index were increased in all treatments as compared with the control. The present field study highlighted that the DAP + FYM can be effective in increasing yield with decreased Cd concentrations in crop grains.


Diammonium phosphate Farmyard manure Biochar Benefit-cost analysis Cd stress 


Funding information

This study is financially supported by the University of Agriculture Faisalabad.


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Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Zia ur Rehman
    • 1
    Email author
  • Muhammad Rizwan
    • 2
  • Shafaqat Ali
    • 2
  • Asif Naeem
    • 3
  • Balal Yousaf
    • 4
  • Guijian Lui
    • 4
  • Hinnan Khalid
    • 1
  • Saifullah
    • 1
  • Farhan Hafeez
    • 5
  • Muhammad Azhar
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Soil and Environmental SciencesUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Sciences and EngineeringGovernment College UniversityFaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.Soil and Environmental Sciences DivisionNuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB)FaisalabadPakistan
  4. 4.Chinese Academy of Science (CAS)-Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space SciencesUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaHefeiPeople’s Republic of China
  5. 5.Department of Environmental SciencesCOMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad CampusAbbottabadPakistan

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