Chemical effect of pesticide application on soils: evidence from rare earth elements
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The main objective of this study is to investigate the distribution of rare earth elements (REEs) in Lolium perenne L. plant species which has been grown on vineyard soils treated with pesticide commonly used in the study area. These plants have been grown on two types of soils: (1) brown calcareous soils developed on loess and (2) brown to calcic brown soils developed on conglomerates. The significant correlation observed between the concentrations of phosphorus and the total amount of REEs, in addition to the enrichment in middle REEs (MREEs), suggests the complexation of REEs with phosphates and organic matter. The soils were enriched in REEs due to pesticide application but the plants were depleted. The ratio of REEs in plant over REEs in soil before application of pesticides is higher than that after application of pesticides. Application of pesticides to crops did not affect the fractionation of REEs neither in leaves nor in roots. No selectivity in uptake of REEs occurred because of pesticides except for Ce and Eu which show a negative anomaly relative to the other REEs.
KeywordsRare earth elements Fractionation Grass Soil Pesticides
The authors wish to thank the Agricultural and Viticulture College of Rouffach, the farmers of the Hohrain domain, Rouffach (France), and F. Huber, A. Aubert, and J.L. Cézard from the mineralogy laboratory of LHYGES. The authors would also like to thank the anonymous reviewer for his constructive comments.
This research was funded by the Research Program EC2CO (CNRS-INSU).
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