Arabian Journal of Geosciences

, 11:544 | Cite as

Geological and hydrogeological environment with geohazards during underground construction in Hangzhou: a review

  • Ye-Shuang Xu
  • Jack Shuilong ShenEmail author
  • An-Nan Zhou
  • Arul Arulrajah
Original Paper


The urban area of Hangzhou is located in the northeast region of the Hangzhou Bay, beside the estuary of the Qiantang River. Three main ancient rivers are present in the case study area. The ancient rivers, together with the influence of three transgressions, influence the geological and hydrogeological formations of the urban area of Hangzhou. Soft clay is widely deposited in the study area and the Quaternary strata are rich in pore water, karst water, and bedrock fissure water. Confined aquifers located in the case study area have high pressure, high permeability, and rich water, and their levels fluctuate with tide. Karst strata, soft clay, ancient confined aquifer, and shallow gas deposits are potential geological features, which may threaten underground construction in the urban area of Hangzhou. As such, corresponding pre-treatments should be adopted to control the potential geohazards. Karst caves are proposed be infilled or reinforced before the commencement of underground construction works. Ground improvement methods can be adopted to enhance the strength of soft soil. Foundation dewatering in foundation pits with pensile curtains can be adopted to control ancient confined aquifers. Pre-exhaustion of shallow gas prior to commencement of construction works is an effective measure to control shallow gas with high pressure. Moreover, the impacts of the Qiantang River tide on the groundwater level and the deformation of underground structures should be considered.


Quaternary sediments Geohazards Soft soil Shallow gas Karst Ancient river aquifer 



The research work described herein was funded by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (Grant No. 41472252). These financial supports are gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ye-Shuang Xu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jack Shuilong Shen
    • 3
    Email author
  • An-Nan Zhou
    • 4
  • Arul Arulrajah
    • 3
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering, School of Naval Architecture, Ocean, and Civil EngineeringShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration (CISSE), Department of Civil EngineeringShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Department of Civil and Construction EngineeringSwinburne University of TechnologyHawthornAustralia
  4. 4.School of EngineeringRoyal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT)MelbourneAustralia

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