Vehicular emissions on main roads in Makkah, Saudi Arabia—a dispersion modelling study
- 61 Downloads
Particulate matter (PM) is the atmospheric pollutant of main concern in Makkah; therefore, there is a need for its effective monitoring, modelling and management. In this study, Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System (ADMS)-Urban model is employed, which is a well-known atmospheric dispersion modelling system. Traffic data were collected for several years (2007–2012) on six main roads in Makkah during the months of Ramadhan and Hajj. Data analysis showed that on average, there were 83% light-duty vehicles and 17% heavy-duty vehicles on Makkah roads; however, this percentage slightly varied both spatially and temporally. The number of vehicles demonstrated increasing trend from 2007 to 2012 on the six roads. Traffic characteristics, such as vehicle speed, vehicle type and number, were used to calculate the emissions of PM10 and PM2.5. Along with pollutant emissions, ADMS-Urban requires meteorological parameters such as wind speed and direction, temperature, relative humidity, cloud cover and boundary layer height. Concentrations were predicted in three different forms: (a) for six receptors, (b) as diurnal cycles and (c) as contour maps for the whole Makkah City. Modelled concentrations were compared with the observed concentrations at Masfalah and Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME) monitoring stations. ADMS-Urban underestimated both PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations; however, the difference was much greater at the PME (about 73%) than at the Masfalah station (about 24%). Reasons for the discrepancies are discussed, and various statistical metrics are calculated to assess the model performance. More emission data are required to improve the performance of the model and minimise the gap between observed and predicted concentrations.
KeywordsADMS-Urban Air pollution modelling Air quality PM10 PM2.5 Makkah
I greatly appreciate the institute for supporting and funding projects on environmental issues.
This study was sponsored by the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques Institute for Hajj and Umrah Research, Umm Al-Qura University Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
- Al-Jeelani HA (2009) Evaluation of air quality in the Holy Makkah during Hajj season 1425 H. J Appl Sci Res 5:115–121Google Scholar
- AQEG (2012) Air Quality Expert Group, Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the United Kingdom. Website: https://ukair.defra.gov.uk/assets/documents/reports/cat11/1212141150_AQEG_Fine_Particulate_Matter_in_the_UK.pdf (accessed: 09.08.2017)
- Caslaw D (2015) The openair manual, open-source tools for analysing air pollution data. Version: 10th June 2014, page: 230–237. Website: http://www.openair-project.org/PDF/OpenAir_Manual.pdf (accessed: 08.08.2017)
- CERC (2017) Cambridge Environmental Research Consultancy Ltd. http://www.cerc.co.uk/environmental-software/ADMS-Urban-model.html (accessed: 23/07/2017)
- COMEAP (2009) Long-term exposure to air pollution: effect on mortality. The Committee on the Medical Effects of Air PollutantsGoogle Scholar
- Habeebullah TM (2013) Health impacts of PM10 using AirQ2.2.3model in Makkah. J Basic Appl Sci 9:259–268Google Scholar
- Habeebullah TM, Munir S, Morsy EA, Mohammed AMF (2014) Spatial and temporal analysis of air pollution in Makkah, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 5th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology. International Proceeding of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, ISSN: 2010–4618, vol. 69: 65–70. May 14–16, 2014, Gdansk, PolandGoogle Scholar
- Munir S, Habeebullah TM, Gabr S, Morsy E, Mohammed AMF, El-Saoud WA (2016) Application of ADMS-Urban in the Holy City of Makkah—modelling particulate matter (part-2). Int J Agri Environ Res 2(1):24–36Google Scholar
- Munir S, Habeebullah TM, Gabr S, Morsy E, Mohammed AMF, El-Saoud WA (2015a) Application of ADMS-Urban in the Holy City of Makkah—modelling particulate matter (part-1). Int J Agri Environ Res 1(1):30–39Google Scholar
- Munir S, Habeebullah TM, Mohammed AMF, Morsy EA, Awad AH, Seroji AR, Hassan IA (2015b) An analysis into the temporal variations of ground level ozone in the arid climate of Makkah applying k-means algorithms. EnvironmentAsia 8(1):53–60Google Scholar
- Seroji AR (2011) Particulates in the atmosphere of Makkah and Mina Valley during the Ramadan and Hajj seasons of 2004 and 2005. In: Brebbia CA, Longhurst JWS, Popov V (eds) Air pollution XIX. Wessex Institute of Technology, AshurstGoogle Scholar
- Walters S and Ayres J (2001) The health effects of air pollution. In Pollution causes, effects and control, Harrison, R.M. (Ed.), Chapter 11, pp. 275, ISBN 0-85404-621-6, fourth editions, Royal Society of Chemistry, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- WHO (2003). Health aspects of air pollution with particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Report on a WHO Working Group Bonn, Germany 13–15, January 2003Google Scholar