Advertisement

Mapping potential risks of long-term wastewater irrigation in alluvial soils, Egypt

  • Ahmed S. Abuzaid
  • Mohamed E. Fadl
Original Paper
  • 100 Downloads

Abstract

In Egypt, wastewater has been used for irrigation in areas with fresh water scarcity; however, continuous applications may cause potential risks. Thus, the current study aims to map the spatial distribution of soil contamination and human risks of long-term wastewater irrigation due to the exposure of heavy metals. Soils from nine sites in Al-Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, were sampled and analyzed. Wastewater irrigation resulted in a buildup of heavy metals in soils compared to Nile fresh water-irrigated soil. The pollution index (PI) showed the decreasing order of Cd > Zn > Ni > Cu > Co > Pb > Cr. The soils were out of the safe domain, as the integrated pollution index of Nemero’s (IPIN) exceeded the safe limit of 0.7. The enrichment factor (EF) exceeded 1.0, proving anthropogenic effects. The geo-accumulation index (Igeo) indicated high threats associated with Cd. The calculated hazard index (HI) indicated that humans exposed to such contaminated soils would have a potential health risk, particularly children. It is recommended to perform a treatment to the wastewater used in irrigation to avoid such threats.

Keywords

Effluent irrigation GIS Health risks Heavy metals Pollution 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abbas T et al (2017) Effect of biochar on cadmium bioavailability and uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in a soil with aged contamination. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 140:37–47.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.02.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdelhafez AA, Abbas HH, Abd-El-Aal RS, Kandil NF, Li J, Mahmoud W (2012) Environmental and health impacts of successive mineral fertilization in Egypt. Clean–Soil Air Water 40:356–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alloway BJ (2013) Sources of heavy metals and metalloids in soils. In: Alloway BJ (ed) Heavy metals in soils: trace metals and metalloids in soils and their bioavailability. Springer Science+Business Media, Dordrecht, pp 11–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. APHA (2005) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 21st edn. APHA-AWWA-WEF, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  5. Azimi A, Azari A, Rezakazemi M, Ansarpour M (2017) Removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters: a review. ChemBioEng Rev 4:37–59.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cben.201600010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balkhair KS, Ashraf MA (2016) Field accumulation risks of heavy metals in soil and vegetable crop irrigated with sewage water in western region of Saudi Arabia. Saudi J Biol Sci 23:S32–S44.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2015.09.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bhuiyan MA, Parvez L, Islam M, Dampare SB, Suzuki S (2010) Heavy metal pollution of coal mine-affected agricultural soils in the northern part of Bangladesh. J Hazard Mater 173:384–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blume H-P et al (2016) Threats to the soil functions. In: Blume H-P et al (eds) Scheffer/SchachtschabelSoil Science. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 485–558.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-30942-7_11 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Briki M, Ji H, Li C, Ding H, Gao Y (2015) Characterization, distribution, and risk assessment of heavy metals in agricultural soil and products around mining and smelting areas of Hezhang, China. Environ Monit Assess 187:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen T, Liu X, Li X, Zhao K, Zhang J, Xu J, Shi J, Dahlgren RA (2009) Heavy metal sources identification and sampling uncertainty analysis in a field-scale vegetable soil of Hangzhou, China. Environ Pollut 157:1003–1010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen H, Teng Y, Lu S, Wang Y, Wang J (2015) Contamination features and health risk of soil heavy metals in China. Sci Total Environ 512:143–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cheng H, Li M, Zhao C, Li K, Peng M, Qin A, Cheng X (2014) Overview of trace metals in the urban soil of 31 metropolises in China. J Geochem Explor 139:31–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Du Y, Gao B, Zhou H, Ju X, Hao H, Yin S (2013) Health risk assessment of heavy metals in road dusts in urban parks of Beijing, China. Procedia Environ Sci 18:299–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Elbana TA, Bakr N, George B, Elbana M (2017) Assessment of marginal quality water for sustainable irrigation management: case study of Bahr El-Baqar area, Egypt. Water Air Soil Pollut 228:214.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-017-3397-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. FAO (1994) Water quality for agriculture. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 29. Revision, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  16. FAO/WHO (2007) Joint WHO /FAO, food standard programme codex alimentarius commission, 13th session, report of the thirty eight session of thecodex committee on food hygiene, ALINORM 07/ 30/13, FAO/WHO,Houston, USAGoogle Scholar
  17. Farahat E, Linderholm HW (2015) Nutrient resorption efficiency and proficiency in economic wood trees irrigated by treated wastewater in desert planted forests. Agric Water Manag 155:67–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Frid AS (2016) Migration models of Cu, Zn, and Cd in soils under irrigation with urban wastewater. In: Frank-Kamenetskaya OV, Panova EG, Vlasov DY (eds) Biogenic—abiogenic interactions in natural and anthropogenic systems. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 157–163.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24987-2_13 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gu C et al (2016) Distribution and ecological assessment of heavy metals in irrigation channel sediments in a typical rural area of south China. Ecol Eng 90:466–472.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2016.01.054 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Han FX, Singer A (2007) Trace element distribution in arid zone soils. In: Biogeochemistry of trace elements in arid environments. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 47–68.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-6024-3_2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hashem HA, Hassanein RA, El-Deep MH, Shouman AI (2013) Irrigation with industrial wastewater activates antioxidant system and osmoprotectant accumulation in lettuce, turnip and tomato plants. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 95:144–152.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.05.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kabata-Pendias A (2010) Trace elements in soils and plants, 4th edn. CRC press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Khan MU, Malik RN, Muhammad S (2013) Human health risk from heavy metal via food crops consumption with wastewater irrigation practices in Pakistan. Chemosphere 93:2230–2238.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.07.067 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Khan MU, Muhammad S, Malik RN, Khan SA, Tariq M (2016) Heavy metals potential health risk assessment through consumption of wastewater irrigated wild plants: a case study. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 22:141–152.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2015.1056292 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Krishna AK, Mohan KR (2016) Distribution, correlation, ecological and health risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in surface soils around an industrial area, Hyderabad, India. Environ Earth Sci 75:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lee CS, Li XD, Shi WZ, Cheung SC, Thornton I (2006) Metal contamination in urban, suburban, and country park soils of Hong Kong: a study based on GIS and multivariate statistics. Sci Total Environ 356:45–61.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.03.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Li P, Lin C, Cheng H, Duan X, Lei K (2015) Contamination and health risks of soil heavy metals around a lead/zinc smelter in southwestern China. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 113:391–399.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.12.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. López-Roldán R, Rubalcaba A, Martin-Alonso J, González S, Martí V, Cortina JL (2016) Assessment of the water chemical quality improvement based on human health risk indexes: application to a drinking water treatment plant incorporating membrane technologies. Sci Total Environ 540:334–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lu X, Zhang X, Li LY, Chen H (2014) Assessment of metals pollution and health risk in dust from nursery schools in Xi’an, China. Environ Res 128:27–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Luo XS, Yu S, Zhu YG, Li XD (2012) Trace metal contamination in urban soils of China. Sci Total Environ 421:17–30.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.04.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Luo XS, Xue Y, Wang YL, Cang L, Xu B, Ding J (2015) Source identification and apportionment of heavy metals in urban soil profiles. Chemosphere 127:152–157.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.01.048 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Müller G (1981) The heavy metal pollution of the sediments of Neckars and Its tributary: A stocktaking. Chemiiker-Zeitung 105:157–164Google Scholar
  33. Mungai TM, Owino AA, Makokha VA, Gao Y, Yan X, Wang J (2016) Occurrences and toxicological risk assessment of eight heavy metals in agricultural soils from Kenya, Eastern Africa. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:18533–18541.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7042-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nesler A, DalCorso G, Fasani E, Manara A, Di Sansebastiano GP, Argese E, Furini A (2017) Functional components of the bacterial CzcCBA efflux system reduce cadmium uptake and accumulation in transgenic tobacco plants. New Biotechnol 35:54–61.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nbt.2016.11.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ong GH, Wong LS, Tan AL, Yap CK (2016) Effects of metal-contaminated soils on the accumulation of heavy metals in gotu kola (Centella asiatica) and the potential health risks: a study in Peninsular Malaysia. Environ Monit Assess 188:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Patel P, Raju NJ, Reddy BCSR, Suresh U, Sankar DB, Reddy TVK (2018) Heavy metal contamination in river water and sediments of the Swarnamukhi River Basin, India: risk assessment and environmental implications. Environ Geochem Health 40:609–623.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-017-0006-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Peña-Icart M, Villanueva Tagle ME, Alonso-Hernández C, Rodríguez Hernández J, Behar M, Pomares Alfonso MS (2011) Comparative study of digestion methods EPA 3050B (HNO3–H2O2–HCl) and ISO 11466.3 (aqua regia) for Cu, Ni and Pb contamination assessment in marine sediments. Mar Environ Res 72:60–66.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2011.05.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Peris M, Recatalá L, Micó C, Sánchez R, Sánchez J (2008) Increasing the knowledge of heavy metal contents and sources in agricultural soils of the European Mediterranean region. Water Air Soil Pollut 192:25–37.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-008-9631-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Praveena SM, Yuswir NS, Aris AZ, Hashim Z (2015) Contamination assessment and potential human health risks of heavy metals in Klang urban soils: a preliminary study. Environ Earth Sci 73:8155–8165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rashed M, Awad SR, Salam MA, Smidt E (1995) Monitoring of groundwater in Gabal El-Asfar wastewater irrigated area (greater Cairo). Water Sci Technol 32:163–169.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0273-1223(96)00130-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Roudposhti GM, Karbassi A, Baghvand A (2016) A pollution index for agricultural soils. Arch Agron Soil Sci 62:1411–1424.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03650340.2016.1154542 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sarwar N, Saifullah MSS, Zia MH, Naeem A, Bibi S, Farid G (2010) Role of mineral nutrition in minimizing cadmium accumulation by plants. J Sci Food Agric 90:925–937.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3916 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shurvilin AV, Chernukha NI, Saad GB (2010) Effect of long-term urban wastewater irrigation on heavy metal contamination of soils under conditions of Egypt. Russ Agric Sci 36:452–454.  https://doi.org/10.3103/s1068367410060170 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Singh A, Sharma RK, Agrawal M, Marshall FM (2010) Health risk assessment of heavy metals via dietary intake of foodstuffs from the wastewater irrigated site of a dry tropical area of India. Food Chem Toxicol 48:611–619.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.11.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Soil Survey Staff (1993) Soil survey manual. . Soil Conservation Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture Handbook 18Google Scholar
  46. Soil Survey Staff (2014) Keys to soil taxonomy, 12th edn. USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  47. USEPA (1997) United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1997. Exposure factors handbook, general factors, EPA/600/P-95/002Fa, Volume I. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  48. USEPA (2002) United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2002. Supplemental guidance for developing soil screening levels for superfund sites, OSWER 9355. Washingston, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection AgencyGoogle Scholar
  49. USEPA (2011) United states Environmental Protection Agency. 2011. Exposure factors handbook 2011 edition (final), EPA/600/R-09/052F Washington, DC: U. S. Environmental Protection AgencyGoogle Scholar
  50. Verbyla ME, Iriarte MM, Guzman AM, Coronado O, Almanza M, Mihelcic JR (2016) Pathogens and fecal indicators in waste stabilization pond systems with direct reuse for irrigation: fate and transport in water, soil and crops. Sci Total Environ 551:429–437.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.159 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. WHO (2012) Safety evaluation of certain food additives, Seventy-sixth meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). WHO Food Additives Series, 67. World Health Organization, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  52. Xie YF, Chen TB, Lei M, Yang J, Guo QJ, Song B, Zhou XY (2011) Spatial distribution of soil heavy metal pollution estimated by different interpolation methods: accuracy and uncertainty analysis. Chemosphere 82:468–476.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.09.053 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yadav RK, Minhas PS, Khajanchi-Lal DJC (2016) Potential of wastewater disposal through tree plantations. In: Dagar JC, Minhas P (eds) Agroforestry for the management of waterlogged saline soils and poor-quality waters. Springer India, New Delhi, pp 163–179.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-81-322-2659-8_10 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yao H, Lu J, Yuan X, Wu J, Zhao J, Yu XH, Zhou YM (2014) Concentrations, bioavailability, and spatial distribution of soil heavy metals in a long-term wastewater irrigation area in North China. Clean-Soil Air Water 42:331–338.  https://doi.org/10.1002/clen.201200574 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zidan MS, Dawoud MA (2013) Agriculture use of marginal water in Egypt: opportunities and challenges. In: Shahid SA, Abdelfattah MA, Taha FK (eds) Developments in soil salinity assessment and reclamation: innovative thinking and use of marginal soil and water resources in irrigated agriculture. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 661–679.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-5684-7_43 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Soil and Water Department, Faculty of AgricultureBenha UniversityBenhaEgypt
  2. 2.Continuous Studies DivisionNational Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences (NARSS)Alf MaskanEgypt

Personalised recommendations