Historical evaluation of hydrological and water quality changes of southern Kuwait groundwater system

  • Khaled Hadi
  • Umayadoss Saravana KumarEmail author
  • Mohammed Al-Senafy
  • Amitabha Mukhopadhyay
Original Paper


Groundwater constitutes an important natural resource in Kuwait and thus requires effective management policies based on a sound knowledge of its flow, recharge, and factors affecting the quality of the water. An assessment of the flow and water quality changes of the southern Kuwait groundwaters over the past decades was made based on the available hydrogeological, hydrochemical, pumping and tracer tests, and environmental isotopes data. The predevelopment potentiometric surface of the Dammam aquifer was higher than that of the Kuwait Group aquifer. The Dammam groundwater is old and no recharge occurred in Kuwait during pre-development times. The Kuwait Group aquifer was recharged mainly by an upward leakage from the Dammam aquifer, with local recharge largely restricted to the Dibdibba depressions. The continuous groundwater pumping has resulted in the reversal of flow direction. The salinity of the Dammam aquifer at Al-Shegaya and Umm-Gudair has been relatively stable since 1960, whereas the Kuwait Group aquifer has a stable to freshening trend.


Hydrogeology Hydrochemistry Inverse modeling Pumping and tracer tests Environmental isotopes Groundwater ages 



The authors would like to thank the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research and the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences (KFAS) for funding the project. The authors express their gratitude to their colleagues (Mr. Asim Al-Khalid, Mr. Khaled Al-Fahad, Mr. Bandar Al-Salman, Ms. Ruby Crasta, and Ms. Sushma Bangera) for their help at various stages of the investigation. The support received from consultant Dr. Robert Maliva, M/s. Schlumberger Water Services during the execution of the study is sincerely acknowledged. Thanks are also due to Dr. Robert Maliva for language correction of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khaled Hadi
    • 1
  • Umayadoss Saravana Kumar
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Mohammed Al-Senafy
    • 1
  • Amitabha Mukhopadhyay
    • 1
  1. 1.Water Research CenterKuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR)SafatKuwait
  2. 2.Isotope Hydrology SectionInternational Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)ViennaAustria

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