Human health risk assessment from exposure of heavy metals in soil samples of Jammu district of Jammu and Kashmir, India

  • Manpreet Kaur
  • Ajay KumarEmail author
  • Rohit Mehra
  • Rosaline Mishra
Original Paper


Contamination in soil can directly pose significant health risks through oral ingestion, particle inhalation, and dermal contact. Here, we studied the contamination level of heavy metals in soil samples to assess the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic doses through multi-pathway exposures for health hazard point of view. The concentration of metals viz. zinc, iron, chromium, cadmium, copper, and manganese were measured in the collected soil samples of Jammu district, Jammu and Kashmir, India by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The average contents of the metals studied were as follows: Zn, 112 mg kg−1; Fe, 7403 mg kg−1; Cr, 92 mg kg−1; Cu, 37 mg kg−1; Cd, 0.4 mg kg−1; and Mn, 350 mg kg−1, respectively and metal decreased in the order Fe > Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Cd. The contamination factor, pollution load index, and index of geo-accumulation were also calculated to assess the quality of soil. Carcinogenic risk also has been calculated for Cr and Cd and carcinogenic doses for different exposure routes follow the order doses for ingestion (CDIing-ca) > > doses for inhalation (CDIinh-ca) > > doses for dermal absorption (CDIdermal-ca). Our results showed that the average values of Zn and Cd in the soil were within the acceptable limits, whereas the average values of Fe, Cr, Cu, and Mn in the soil samples were higher than the USEPA (1999) guidelines. The hazard index for both children and adults is less than unity, indicating no non-carcinogenic risk for both children and adults.


Soil contamination Risk assessment Carcinogenic doses Hazard index Pollution load index 



The authors gratefully acknowledge Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar for providing necessary experimental facilities, and Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, Government of India for financial support during the present study.


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Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manpreet Kaur
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ajay Kumar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rohit Mehra
    • 2
  • Rosaline Mishra
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsDAV CollegeAmritsarIndia
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsDr. B. R Ambedkar National institute of TechnologyJalandharIndia
  3. 3.Radiological Physics & Advisory DivisionBhabha Atomic Research CentreMumbaiIndia

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