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Non-carcinogenic and Carcinogenic Risk Assessment of Trace Elements of PM2.5 During Winter and Pre-monsoon Seasons in Delhi: A Case Study

  • Ananya Das
  • Gaurav Singh
  • Gazala Habib
  • Arun Kumar
Original Paper
  • 78 Downloads

Abstract

This study focuses on exposures of metal constituents of particulate matter (PM) in the ambient air sample collected at Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IIT Delhi), India, which might lead to occurrence of non-cancerous events and cancer events. A step-wise construction of risk assessment framework for estimating risks due to exposures of PM2.5 presented. Samples from winter and pre-monsoon seasons of Delhi region (28.5450°N, 77.1926°E) (duration 1: December 2013–February 2014; duration 2: March 2014–May 14) were collected. More than 12 samples were collected using PM2.5 sampler on an 8-h basis and analysed gravimetrically for determining mass content and chemically for determining metal content of PM2.5. Twenty-eight metals in samples were detected using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF). Using these values, health risks of hypotheticals exposures of PM2.5 in ambient air samples were estimated either in terms of hazard quotient (i.e. ratio of daily inhaled dose to daily acceptable dose) for exposures of non-carcinogenic metals or lifetime excess risk of cancer for exposures of carcinogenic metals. Dose–response information of different metals was taken from the U.S. EPA IRIS database. Among metals, S content was highest followed by Cl, Si, K, Ca and Fe, Zn and Pb. High S can be attributed to vehicular emission or particles generated from abrasion of tyres of vehicles. High contents of Si, Ca, Fe in PM samples may be contributed from resuspension road dust, while source of K may be local biomass burning for space heating in winter. Zn comes from vehicle and coal burning probably used by local residents for space heating. Chlorine used in lubricants and diesel fuel could be a source of high Cl content in samples collected in the present work. Small traces of Pb in samples might be coming from brake and tyre wear or resuspension of road dust contaminated with lead used earlier in diesel and/or petrol to improve combustion. Estimates of potential risk due to hypothetical exposure of adults and children to four carcinogenic metals of PM2.5 were found to be more than 1/10,000,000, indicating chance of cancer risks. Among metals, exposures to PM-associated Cd resulted in consistent cancerous risk in both seasons, whereas exposures to PM-associated Cr resulted in HQ value > 1 indicating chance of non-carcinogenic risks.

Keywords

Ambient PM (PM2.5, PM10) sampling Inhalation risks Carcinogenic metals Cancer risk 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Indian Institute of Technology (Delhi, India) for supporting this study through financial grant and Dr. Ramya Sunder Raman from IISER Bhopal (India) for providing access to the ED-XRF analysis facility.

Supplementary material

12403_2018_285_MOESM1_ESM.docx (23 kb)
Electronic supplementary material 1 (DOCX 23 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ananya Das
    • 1
  • Gaurav Singh
    • 1
  • Gazala Habib
    • 1
  • Arun Kumar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology DelhiNew DelhiIndia

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