Advertisement

Exposure and Health

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 59–72 | Cite as

Health Risk Assessment and Risk Control: Drinking Groundwater in Yinchuan Plain, China

  • Liang ZhuEmail author
  • Mingnan Yang
  • Xi Chen
  • Jingtao Liu
Original Paper
  • 205 Downloads

Abstract

A preliminary health risk assessment of 25 chemical pollutants was conducted and corresponding risk control measures were proposed. Evaluation results showed that the mean health risk caused by groundwater consumption was 6.343 × 10−5, with 69.9% of the sampling location exceeding the most stringent international standard (10−6). Health risk owing to inorganic pollutants (5.233 × 10−6) was greater than those owing to trace organic pollutants (2.725 × 10−7). The highest risk value due to chemical carcinogenic pollutants was primarily caused by arsenic, while the greatest health risk due to non-carcinogenic pollutants was caused by fluoride. The mean health risk due to chemical carcinogens (6.585 × 10−5) was 2 magnitudes larger than that caused by non-carcinogenic pollutants (4.858 × 10−7), which indicated that carcinogenic risk was the primary health risk in the drinking groundwater. As the major contaminant causing health risk, high-arsenic groundwater is mainly observed in the riparian areas near the Yellow River and the front-edge areas of alluvial plains. The arsenic content is high and unstable in shallow groundwater, but low and stable in deep groundwater which indicates that high-arsenic groundwater can be controlled by improving well completion and sealing off shallow groundwater. Furthermore, the pumping quantity of deep groundwater must be optimised to prevent the intrusion of shallow high-arsenic groundwater while strengthening the management of pollution sources and improving groundwater quality monitoring and warning.

Keywords

Arsenic Groundwater pollution Health risk Yinchuan Plain 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the China Geological Survey (Grant No. 1212011220982) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41302188) for financial support. We are also grateful to everyone in the Groundwater Pollution Investigation and Evaluation project team. Our appreciation also goes to Wang Hui and Liu Huimin from the Ningxia Land & Resources Survey and Monitoring Institution who helped us collect the dynamic monitoring data.

References

  1. Batayneh AT (2012) Toxic (aluminum, beryllium, boron, chromium and zinc) in groundwater: health risk assessment. Int J Environ Sci Technol 9(1):153–162.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-011-0009-3
  2. CGS (2016) China geochemical survey report. http://www.cgs.gov.cn/UploadFiles/2016_05/17/20160506.pdf
  3. Farokhnesh F, Mahvi AH, Jamali Y (2013) Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk assessment of chromium in drinking water sources: Birjand, Iran. Res J Environ Toxicol 10:166–171.  https://doi.org/10.3923/rjet.2016.166.171 Google Scholar
  4. Han S, Zhang F, Zhang H, An Y, Wang Y, Wu X, Wang C (2013) Spatial and temporal patterns of groundwater arsenic in shallow and deep groundwater of Yinchuan Plain, China. J Geochem Explor 135:71–78.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2012.11.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Jing X, Yang H, Wang W, Cao Y (2016) Hydro-geochemical simulation for the evolution of groundwater quality in Yinchuan Plain, China. Hydrol Sci J 61(12):2284–2294.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2015.1111515 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kim YS, Park HS, Kim JY, Park SK, Cho BW, Sung IH, Shin DC (2004) Health risk assessment for uranium in Korean groundwater. J Environ Radioact 77(1):77–85.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2004.03.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kumar M, Ramanatahn A, Tripathi R, Farswan S, Kumar D, Bhattacharya P (2017) A study of trace element contamination using multivariate statistical techniques and health risk assessment in groundwater of Chhaprola Industrial Area, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. Chemosphere 166:135–145.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lee ST, Lee YH, Hong KP, Lee SD, Kim MK, Park JH, Seo DC (2013) Comparison of BOD, COD, TOC and DOC as the indicator of organic matter pollution of agricultural surface water in Gyeongnam Province. Korean J Soil Sci Fertilizer 46(5):327–332.  https://doi.org/doi:10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.5.327
  9. Leung C M, Jiao JJ (2006) Heavy metal and trace element distributions in groundwater in natural slopes and highly urbanized spaces in Mid-Levels area, Hong Kong. Water Res 40(4):753–767.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2005.12.016
  10. Li P (2016) Groundwater quality in Western China: challenges and paths forward for groundwater quality research in Western China. Expo Health 8(3):305–310.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-016-0210-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Li P, Qian H (2011) Human health risk assessment for chemical pollutants in drinking water source in Shizuishan City, Northwest China. Iranian J Environ Health Sci Eng 8(1):41–48Google Scholar
  12. Li P, Wu J, Qian H (2010) Groundwater quality assessment based on entropy weighted osculating value method. Int J Environ Sci 27(3):31–34.  https://doi.org/10.6088/ijes.00104020018 Google Scholar
  13. Li P, Wu J, Qian H (2014a) Origin and assessment of groundwater pollution and associated health risk: a case study in an industrial park, northwest China. Environ Geochem Health 36(4):693–712.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-013-9590-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Li P, Wu J, Qian H (2014b) Hydrogeo chemistry and quality assessment of shallow groundwater in the southern part of the Yellow River alluvial plain (Zhongwei section), China. Earth SciRes J 18(1):27–38.  https://doi.org/10.15446/esrj.v18n1.34048 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Li P, Qian H, Howard KWF, Wu J (2015) Heavy metal contamination of Yellow River alluvial sediments, northwest China. Environ Earth Sci 73(7):3403–3415.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-014-3628-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Li P, Wu J, Qian H, Zhang Y, Yang N, Jing L, Yu P (2016) Hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater in and around a wastewater irrigated forest in the south eastern edge of the Tengger Desert, Northwest China. Exposure Health 8(3):331–348.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-016-0193-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. MEPC (2014) Guide to Health Risk Assessment for Groundwater Pollution. http://wfs.mep.gov.cn/gtfw/zhgl/201505/W020150513558002595884.pdf
  18. Picado F, Mendoza A, Cuadra S, Barmen G, Jakobssn K, Bengtssn G (2010) Ecological, groundwater, and human health risk assessment in a mining region of Nicaragua. Risk Anal 30(6):916–933.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2010.01387.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Qian H, Li P (2011) Hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater in Yinchuan plain and their control factors. Asian J Chem 23(7):2927–2938Google Scholar
  20. Qian H, Li P, Howard KWF, Yang C, Zhang X (2012) Assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the Yinchuan Plain, Northwest China using OREADIC. Environ Monit Assess 184(6):3613–3628.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-2211-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Qian H, Li P, Wu J, Zhou Y (2013) Isotopic characteristics of precipitation, surface and ground waters in the Yinchuan Plain, Northwest China. Environ Earth Sci 70(1):57–70.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-012-2103-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ravenscroft P, Howarth RJ, Mcarthur JM (2005) Comment on “limited temporal variability of arsenic concentrations in 20 wells monitored for 3 years in Araihazar, Bangladesh”. Environ Sci Technol 39(13):4759–4766.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es058017a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rotiroti M, Bonomi T, Fumagalli L (2013) An integrated approach to asses origin and mobilization of As, Fe and Mn in groundwater: the case study of Cremona (northern Italy). EGU General Assembly, pp 417–436Google Scholar
  24. Sander P, Öberg T (2006) Comparing deterministic and probabilistic risk assessments. A case study at a closed steel mill in southern Sweden (7 pp). J Soils Sediments 6(1):55–61.  https://doi.org/10.1065/jss2005.10.147 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Su X, Wang H, Zhang Y (2013) Health risk assessment of nitrate contamination in groundwater: a case study of an agricultural area in Northeast China. Water Resour Manage 27(8):3025–3034.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-013-0330-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Teng Y, Li J, Wu J, Lu S, Wang Y, Chen H (2015) Environmental distribution and associated human health risk due to trace elements and organic compounds in soil in Jiangxi province, China. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 122:406.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.09.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Turdi M, Yang L (2016) Trace elements contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from the agricultural and pastoral areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China. Int J Environ Res Public Health 13(10):938.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13100938 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. USEPA (1989) Risk assessment guidance for superfund: volume II environmental evaluation manual, interim final. Saúde Pública 804:636–640Google Scholar
  29. USEPA (2011) Exposure factors handbook: 2011 edition. doi: EPA/600/R-090/052FGoogle Scholar
  30. Walker CW Jr, Houston CW (1981) Toxicity of cadmium to bacteria. Biotechnology Letters 3(8):437–442.  https://doi.org/doi:10.1007/BF01134104
  31. Wang Z, Chai L, Wang Y, Wu X (2011) Potential health risk of arsenic and cadmium in groundwater near Xiangjiang River, China: a case study for risk assessment and management of toxic substances. Environ Monit Assess 175(1–4):167–173.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-010-1503-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wang L, Hu F, Yin L, Wan L, Yu Q (2013) Hydrochemical and isotopic study of groundwater in the Yinchuan plain, China. Environ Earth Sci 69:2037–2057.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-012-2040-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wang S, Ling L, Cheng W (2014) Variations of bank shift rates along the Yinchuan Plain reach of the Yellow River and their influencing factors. J Geog Sci 24:703–716.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-014-1114-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Waqas H, Shan A, Khan YG, Nawaz R, Rizwan M, Rehman MS, Shakoor MB, Hhmed W, Jabeen M (2017) Human health risk assessment of arsenic in groundwater aquifers of Lahore, Pakistan. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 23(4).  https://doi.org/doi:10.1080/10807039.2017.1288561
  35. Wei J-M, Mi W-B, He T-H (2008). Assessment of the safety status for the drinking water supply sources and its management strategies in Yinchuan City. J Water Res Water Eng 19(3):65–68 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  36. Wongsasuluk P, Chotpantarat S, Siriwong W, Robson M (2014) Heavy metal contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from shallow groundwater wells in an agricultural area in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand. Environ Geochem Health 36(1):169–182.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-013-9537-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wu J, Sun Z (2016) Evaluation of shallow groundwater contamination and associated human health risk in an alluvial plain impacted by agricultural and industrial activities, mid-west China. Expo Health 8(3):311–329.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-015-0170-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wu J, Li P, Qian H (2015) Hydrochemical characterization of drinking groundwater with special reference to fluoride in an arid area of China and the control of aquifer leakage on its concentrations. Environ Earth Sci 73(12):8575–8588.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-015-4018-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yang Z, Li H-X, Wu X-H, Liu H-M (2007) Estimating of the update speed of groundwater in Yinchuan plain by using the radioactive element-~ 3H. Ningxia Eng Technol 6:84–87 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  40. Zhai Y, Zhao X, Teng Y, Li X, Zhang J, Wu J, Zuo R (2017) Groundwater nitrate pollution and human health risk assessment by using HHRA model in an agricultural area, NE China. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 137:130–142.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.11.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhang Y, Ma R, Li Z (2014) Human health risk assessment of groundwater in Hetao Plain (Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. Environ Monit Assess 186(8):4669.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-014-3729-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hydrogeological Environment Geology Institute of Chinese Academy of Geological SciencesShijiazhuangChina

Personalised recommendations