Exposure and Health

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 33–46 | Cite as

Evaluation of Potential Human Health Risks from Toxic Metals via Consumption of Cultured Fish Species Labeo rohita: A Case Study from an Urban Aquaculture Pond

  • Divya PalEmail author
  • Subodh Kumar Maiti
Original Paper


The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of heavy metal pollution in the urban pond near to the coal mining region (India). The water, sediment, and fish samples were collected and analysed to assess the associated health risk. In the sediment, geoaccumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF), and pollution load index (PLI) were calculated. The estimated daily dietary intake (EDI) for As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were calculated for adults and children on the basis of an average amount of fish consumed by the Indian people. The associated health hazard with the consumption of fish from the urban pond was also assessed in terms of target hazard quotients (THQs). The concentration of As, Cd, Hg, and Pb in the muscles of Labeo rohita were found to be 0.33, 0.26, 0.19, and 3.9 mg kg−1, respectively. The observed metal concentrations in the fish muscles were higher than the limits set by Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and World Health Organisation (WHO) except for Cd and Hg. The values of THQs were found to be maximum for Hg (3.31) followed by As (1.93), Pb (1.7), and Cd (0.26) in the case of children. The results indicate that the concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb are at an alarming stage and present a high health risk condition especially in the case of children.


Environmental pollution Toxic metals Human risk Daily intake Health hazard 



The authors would like to thank Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines), Dhanbad, India for providing the research facility and the scholarship to the first author.


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science and EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines)DhanbadIndia

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