, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 875–896 | Cite as

Extraordinary Geodiversity and Geoheritage Value of Erosional Craters of the Negev Craterland

  • Yaron FinziEmail author
  • Shaked Avni
  • Ariel Maroz
  • Noa Avriel-Avni
  • Sarit Ashckenazi-Polivoda
  • Ina Ryvkin
Original Article


The Negev desert features numerous unique geologic phenomena, the most prominent being crater-like valleys which have formed in a complex erosional process. These erosional craters expose a large variety of ancient rocks and geologic phenomena that reveal details of a rich geologic history. The unique conditions within the erosional craters provide shelter for endemic vegetation and animals and have influenced the development of the region’s cultures and human heritage. The well-preserved and thoroughly studied erosional craters of the Negev provide a great example of the geodiversity and geoheritage values encompassed in such rare geologic features. Worldwide acknowledgment of their importance has brought to the acceptance of the Hebrew term for a crater, makhtesh (literally a mortar), as the universal term for erosional craters. In recent years, the increasing importance of geotourism and environmental-education activities to the local communities brought upon a coalition of scientists, tour guides, residents, and stakeholders to support the establishment of a geopark in the Negev Craterland. The work presented here is a synthesis of current knowledge and new advancements in the study of erosional craters and their geoheritage value. In particular, we propose a revised definition of the term “makhtesh” to better represent different types of erosional craters while acknowledging the common features which make these structures so rich in geodiversity. We chose Makhtesh Ramon, the largest crater in the Negev, to demonstrate the great potential geoheritage value of craters worldwide. Finally, we developed a new method to systematically assess and compare the scenic value of the various craters and their morphologic features. We hope that the establishment of a grading scale for the key structural, scenic, and cultural aspects of craters may lay the foundation for future economic, ecologic, and touristic assessments of such unique landscapes and environments.


Negev Craterland Makhtesh Erosional crater Geodiversity Geoheritage Geopark 



The authors thank Efrat Kedem-Silvert of Bateva Tours, Mitzpe Ramon, and Yoash Limon of the Negev Heights Tourism Council for fruitful discussions and contributions to both the manuscript and the coalition supporting the establishment of a Geopark in the Negev Craterland. The authors thank the Israeli Ministry of Science for the ongoing support.

Supplementary material

12371_2018_335_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (838 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 837 kb)


  1. Alahuhta J, Joensuu I, Matero J, Vuori KM, Saastamoinen O (2013) Freshwater ecosystem services in Finland. Suomen ympäristökeskusGoogle Scholar
  2. Amiran DHK (1951) Geomorphology of the central Negev highlands, Israel. Israel Explor J 1:107–120Google Scholar
  3. Anati E (1999) The rock art. Near East Archaeol 62:22–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anenburg M, Bialik OM, Vapnik Y, Chapman HJ, Antler G, Katzir Y, Bickle MJ (2014) The origin of celestine–quartz–calcite geodes associated with a basaltic dyke, Makhtesh Ramon, Israel. Geol Mag 151(5):798–815.cCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arthur LM, Baster RS (1976) Measuring scenic beauty: a selected annotated bibliography. U.S. For. Serv., Rocky Mountain For. Range Exp. Stn., Fort Collins 34 PPGoogle Scholar
  6. Avner U (1993) Mazzebot sites in the Negev and Sinai and their significance. In: Biran A, Aviram J (eds) Biblical archaeology today 1990, Jerusalem, pp 166–181Google Scholar
  7. Avner U (2001) Sacred stones in the desert. Biblic Archaeol Rev 27:30–41Google Scholar
  8. Avni Y (1990) The palaeogeography and the evolution of the landscape in the western part of the central Negev and their relationship to the evolution of the Ramon crater. Horizons in Geography. 31 pp 67-83. (Hebrew)Google Scholar
  9. Avni Y (1993) The structural and landscape evolution of the western Ramon structure. Israel J Earth Sci 42(3–4):177–188Google Scholar
  10. Avni Y (2001) Structure and landscape evolution of the Makhteshim country—interrelations between monoclines, truncation surfaces and the evolution of the Makhteshim. Makhteshim Country: A Laboratory of Nature: Geological and Ecological Studies in the Desert Region of Israel. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia, 33–58Google Scholar
  11. Avni Y, Zilberman E (2006) Landscape evolution triggered by neotectonics in the Sede Zin region, central Negev, Israel. Isr J Earth Sci 55:189–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Avni Y, Segev A, Ginat H (2012) Oligocene regional denudation of the northern Afar dome: pre-and syn-breakup stages of the Afro-Arabian plate. Bulletin 124(11–12):1871–1897Google Scholar
  13. Baars D (2000) The Colorado Plateau: a geologic history revised and updated. UNM Press, Albuquerque, p 251Google Scholar
  14. Baer G (1993) Flow direction in sills and dikes and formation of cauldrons in eastern Makhtesh Ramon. Isr J Earth Sci 42:133–148Google Scholar
  15. Bar O, Gvirtzman Z, Feinstein S, Zilberman E (2013) Accelerated subsidence and sedimentation in the Levant Basin during the Late Tertiary and concurrent uplift of the Arabian Platform: tectonic versus counteracting sedimentary loading effects. Tectonics 32(3):334–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bastian O, Syrbe RU, Slavik J, Moravec J, Louda J, Kochan B, Kochan N, Stutzriemer S, Berens A (2017) Ecosystem services of characteristic biotope types in the Ore Mountains (Germany/Czech Republic). Int J Biodivers Sci Ecosyst Serv Manag 13:51–71. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Becker A, Mazor E, Becker N (1995) Flexural slip in an anticlinal plungeout as a mechanism for dyke offsets: Nahal Ardon Valley, Ramon National geological Park, Israel. Int Geol Rev 37:601–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Becker N, Choresh Y, Bahat O, Inbar M (2009) Economic analysis of feeding stations as a means to preserve an endangered species: the case of griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) in Israel. J Nat Conserv 17:199–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ben David R, Eyal Y, Zilberman E, Bowman D (2002) Fluvial systems response to rift margin tectonics: Makhtesh Ramon area. Geomorphol Drain Basin Dyn Morphol 45(1–2):147–163Google Scholar
  20. Ben-David R (1993) Stages in the evolution of landscape in the Makhtesh Ramon and Nahal Neqarot areas. Isr J Earth Sci 42:189–195Google Scholar
  21. Ben-David R, Mazor E (1988) Stages in the evolution of Makhtesh Ramon and its drainage system. Isr J Earth Sci 37(2–3):125–135Google Scholar
  22. Benjamini C, Druckman Y, Zak I (1993) Depositional cycles in Ramon Group (Triassic), Makhtesh Ramon. Isr J Earth Sci 42:115–124Google Scholar
  23. Bentor YK, Kastner M, Mazor E (1966) The hydrothermal kaolinite of Makhtesh Ramon. In: Bentor YK (ed) The clays of Israel. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, pp 23–28Google Scholar
  24. Bialik OM, Korngreen D, Benjamini C (2012) Lithofacies and cyclicity of Mohilla evaporite basins on the rifted margin of the Levant in the Late Triassic, Makhtesh Ramon, southern Israel. Sedimentology 59(7):2097–2124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Butchart S.H.M, Walpole M, Collen B, van Strien A, Scharlemann J.P.W, Almond R.E.A, Baillie J.E.M, Bomhard B, Brown C, Bruno J, Carpenter K. E, Carr G. M, Chanson J, Chenery A. M, Csirke J, Davidson N. C, Dentener F, Foster M, Galli A, Galloway J.N, Genovesi P, Gregory R.D, Hockings M, Kapos V, Lamarque J-F, Leverington F, Loh J, McGeoch M.A, McRae L, Minasyan A, Morcillo M.H, Oldfield T.E.E, Pauly, D, Quader, S, Revenga C, Sauer J.R, Skolnik B, Spear, D, Stanwell-Smith D, Stuart S.N, Symes A, Tierney M, Tyrrell T.D, Vié, J.C, Watson R (2010) Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines. Science 328, 1164–1168. Calif., 58 pp.
  26. Calvo R, Bartov Y (2001) Hazeva Group, southern Israel: new observations, and their implications for its stratigraphy, paleogeography, and tectono-sedimentary regime. Isr J Earth Sci 50:71–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Craik, K. H. (1970). A system of landscape dimensions: appraisal of its objectivity and illustration of its scientific application: report to Resources for the Future, Inc. University of California PressGoogle Scholar
  28. Danin A (1983) Desert vegetation of Israel and Sinai. Jerusalem: Cana Publishing House 148p. - illus., col. illus., maps.. En Icones,Maps. Geog=2 Floristics (SOUTH_WEST_ASIA: ISRAEL, SOUTH_WEST_ASIA: EGYPT) (198401629)Google Scholar
  29. Danin A (1986) Patterns of biogenic weathering as indicators of palaeoclimates in Israel. Proc R Soc Edinb B Biol Sci 89:243–253. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Danin A (2008) Desert rocks—a habitat which supports many species that were new to science in the last 40 years. Turk J Bot 32(6):459–464Google Scholar
  31. Danin A (2013) Near east ecosystems, plant diversity, pp 478–487Google Scholar
  32. Danin A (2015) Rocks supporting endemic plant species in East Mediterranean deserts. Fl Medit 25:33–38Google Scholar
  33. Eisenberg-Degen D, Rosen SA (2013) Chronological trends in Negev rock art: the Har Michia petroglyphs as a test case. Arts 2:225–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Eizenberg E, Orenstein DE, Zimroni H (2017) Back to the (Visualization) Laboratory: using focus groups to generate qualitative and quantitative results. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 0739456X17700252Google Scholar
  35. Erickson-Gini T, Israel Y (2003) Recent advances in the research of the Nabatean and Roman Negev. In: Rosenthal-Heginbottom R (ed) The Nabateans in the Negev (Haifa), pp 9–11Google Scholar
  36. Evenari M, Shanan L, Tadmor N (1982) The Negev: the challenge of a desert. Harvard University PressGoogle Scholar
  37. Finzi Y, Harlev N (2016) A regional approach for modeling cliff retreat rate: the Makhteshim Country, Israel. Geomorphology 271:65–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Finzi Y, Ryvkin I (2016) The erosional crater (Makhtesh)—a rare but diverse phenomenon. Dead Sea and Arava Studies 8(4):126–138Google Scholar
  39. Freund R (1961) Distribution of Lower Turonian ammonites in Israel and the neighboring countries: Israel Research Ccuncil Bull., vol. 10G, pp. 79–100Google Scholar
  40. Freund R (1965) A model of the structural development of Israel and adjacent areas since Upper Cretaceous times. Geol Mag 102(3):189–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Freund R, Zak I (1973) Shifting of folding and faulting along geological structures. Teva Va’Aretz 15(6):264–270 (in Hebrew)Google Scholar
  42. Garfunkel Z (1964) Tectonic problems along the Ramon lineament, MSc thesis, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 68 pp. [In Hebrew]Google Scholar
  43. Garfunkel Z (1989) Tectonic setting of phaneroozoic magmatism in Israel. Israel Journal of Earth-Sciences 38(2–4):51–74Google Scholar
  44. Garfunkel Z (1998) Constrains on the origin and history of the Eastern Mediterranean basin. Tectonophysics 298(1):5–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Garfunkel Z, Derin B (1984) Permian-early Mesozoic tectonism and continental margin formation in Israel and its implications for the history of the Eastern Mediterranean. Geol Soc Lond, Spec Publ 17:187–201. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Garfunkel Z, Derin B (1988) Reevaluation of latest Jurassic- early Cretaceous history of the Negev and the role of magmatic activity. Isr J Earth Sci 37:43–52Google Scholar
  47. Garfunkel Z, Horowitz A (1966) The Upper Tertiary and Quaternary morphology of the Negev. Isr J Earth Sci 15:101–117Google Scholar
  48. Garfunkel Z, Katz A (1967) New magmatic features in Makhtesh Ramon, southern Israel. Geological Magazine, 104(6):608–629Google Scholar
  49. Gerson R (1982) Talus relicts in deserts: a key to major climatic fluctuation. Isr J Earth Sci 31:123–132Google Scholar
  50. Gill D (2015) The Kuchinarai erosional cirque—a genuine “Makhtesh” in the Phu Phan range of northeast Thailand. Geological Society of Israel Meeting. Abstracts, p 53Google Scholar
  51. Gordon JE (2012) Rediscovering a sense of wonder: geoheritage, geotourism and cultural landscape experiences. Geoheritage 4:65–77. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gordon JE, Barron HF (2013) The role of geodiversity in delivering ecosystem services and benefits in Scotland. Scott J Geol 49:41–58. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gray M (2004) Geodiversity: valuing and conserving abiotic nature. WileyGoogle Scholar
  54. Gray M (2008) Geodiversity: developing the paradigm. Proc Geol Assoc 119:287–298. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gray M, Gordon JE, Brown EJ (2013) Geodiversity and the ecosystem approach: the contribution of geoscience in delivering integrated environmental management. Proc Geol Assoc 124:659–673. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gül A, Gezer A (2004) Modelling proposal for selection of urban forest location and its evaluation using Isparta city example. Paper Presented at I. Ulusal Kent Ormancılığı Kongresi (First National Urban Forestry Congress in Turkey), Ankara (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  57. Guralnik B, Matmon A, Avni Y, Zilberman E, Fink D (2009) Reconstructing drainage evolution in response to tectonic deformation along an active rift margin using cosmogenic exposure age dating of desert pavements. Presented at the EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts, p. 1812Google Scholar
  58. Guralnik B, Matmon A, Avni Y, Fink D (2010) 10Be exposure ages of ancient desert pavements reveal Quaternary evolution of the Dead Sea drainage basin and rift margin tilting. Earth Planet Sci Lett 290:132–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gvirtzman Z (2004) Chronostratigraphic table and subsidence curves of southern Israel. Isr J Earth Sci 53(1):48–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gvirtzman Z, Garfunkel Z, Gvirtzman G (1998) Birth and decay of an intracontinental magmatic swell: Early Cretaceous tectonics of southern Israel. Tectonics 17(3):441–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Haas G (1981) A fragmentary skull of Simosaurus (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Middle Triassic of the Makhtesh Ramon, Israel. Isr J Zool 30(1–2):30–34Google Scholar
  62. Haines-Young R, Potschin M (2013) Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES), Consultation on Version 4, August–December 2012. Report to the European Environmental Agency, EEA Framework Contract no: EEA/IEA/09/003Google Scholar
  63. Hillel D, Tadmor N (1962) Water regime and vegetation in the central Negev highlands of Israel. Ecology 43, 33–41. Illustration of its Scientific Application. Report to Resources for the Future, Inc., Institute for Personality Assessment and Research, University of California, Berkeley
  64. Itamar A, Baer G (1993) Polymetallic mineralization related to magmatic and contact metasomatic features, southern Makhtesh Ramon, Israel. Isr J Earth Sci 42:149–163Google Scholar
  65. Itamar A, Segev A, Peltz S (1994) Volcanic phenomena in quartz-syenite bodies in Gavnunim and Shen Ramon. Israel Geological Society, Annual Meeting, p. 46 (abstract)Google Scholar
  66. Itamar A, Peltz S, Segev A (1997) Fissure explosions in a Lower Cretaceous quartz-syenite stock, Makhtesh Ramon, Israel. International Volcanological Congress IAVCEI, Puerto Vallarta, p. 10 (abstract)Google Scholar
  67. Itamar A, Segev A, Peltz S (1998) The acid magmatic bodies associated with volcanism, hydrothermal alteration and mineralization in southern Makhtesh Ramon. Isr. Geol. Soc. Annu. Meet. Field Trip 7, p. 3-E - 19-Google Scholar
  68. Klein M (1990) The rate of retreat of the Makhtesh Ramon cliff. Horizons in Geography 31:179–183Google Scholar
  69. Korngreen D, Benjamini C (2011) Platform to shelf edge transect, Triassic of northern Israel, North Arabian Plate. Sediment Geol 236:164–184. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Korngreen D, Orlov-Labkovsky O, Bialik O, Benjamini C (2013) The Permian–Triassic transition in the central coastal plain of Israel (north Arabian plate margin), David 1 borehole. PALAIOS 28:491–508. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Krenkel E (1924) Die Bruchzonen Ostafrikas. Geol Rundsch 14(3):209–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lang B, Steinitz G (1994) New 40Ar/39Ar dating of Early Cretaceous intrusive magmatics in Makhtesh Ramon. Isra Geol Surv Curr Res 9:37–40Google Scholar
  73. Lang B, Hebeda EH, Priem HNA, Verdurmen EAT, Steinitz G (1988) K-Ar and Rb-Sr ages of early Cretaceous magmatic rocks from Makhtesh Ramon, southern Israel. Israel Journal of Earth-Sciences 37, 65–72Google Scholar
  74. Lewy Z (1989) Correlation of lithostratigraphic units in the upper Judea Group (Late Cenomanian-Late Coniacian) in Israel. Isr J Earth Sci 38(1):37–43Google Scholar
  75. Litton BR (1968) Forest landscape description and inventories—a basis for land planning and design USDA Forest Service Research Paper PSW-49, USDA Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, Calif (1968), p. 64Google Scholar
  76. Mander Ü, Helming K, Wiggering H (2007) Multifunctional land use: meeting future demands for landscape goods and services. In: Multifunctional land use. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Maret R.E, A. V. Robertson Coe (1960) Geology of Sinbad Valley Anticline, Geology of the Paradox Basin Fold and Fault Belt, Third Field Conference, pp 43–46Google Scholar
  78. Mazor E (1961) A Lower Cretaceous volcano in Makhtesh Ramon, southern Israel. Isr J Earth Sci 10:207Google Scholar
  79. Mazor E (1979) National Geological Park at Makhtesh Ramon- master plan. The geo-isotopic group, Weizmann Institute of Science, pp. 94, submitted to the Israel Nature Authority, Mitzpe Ramon Local Council, Government offices and the settlements bodiesGoogle Scholar
  80. Mazor E (1980) National Geological Park Complex at Makhtesh Ramon—master plan. Written in collaboration with a work group of the Israel Nature Authority, pp. 43Google Scholar
  81. Mazor E (1992) Introduction into the Ramon National Geological Park. In: Geological Guide Book, Makhtesh Ramon. Isr J Earth Sci 42:103–114Google Scholar
  82. Mazor E (1993) Introduction to the Ramon National Geological Park. Isr J Earth Sci 42:103–114Google Scholar
  83. Mazor E, Cohen A (1987) Formation of the quartzite “carpentries” in the Makhtesh Ramon. Isr. Geol. Soc. Annu. Mtg., pp. 79–80 (abstract)Google Scholar
  84. Mazor E, Krasnov BR (2001) Makhteshim Country, Ramon Science Center and Nature Laboratory. Makhteshim Country: a laboratory of nature: geological and ecological studies in the desert region of Israel. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia, 1–32Google Scholar
  85. Mazor E, Beker A, Rosen SA, Pachat Y, Krasnov B, Shinberg G, Zaslavsky N (1994) The treasures of the Ramon and Craterland—the Ramon geo-sites survey. Published by Ramon science center and Weizmann institute. Submitted to the President and Ministers of Israel prior to the Government's declaration to preserve the craters landGoogle Scholar
  86. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) Ecosystems and human well-being: biodiversity synthesis, World Resources InstituteGoogle Scholar
  87. Orenstein DE, Groner E (2014) In the eye of the stakeholder: changes in perceptions of ecosystem services across an international border. Ecosystem Services 8:185–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Peak District [Internet]. Wikipedia. 2016 [cited 11 May 2016]. Available from:
  89. Picard L (1951) ‘Geomorphology of Israel’ part 1: the Negev: Bull. Res. Council, Israel, 8G. pp. 1–30Google Scholar
  90. Plieninger T, Bieling C, Fagerholm N, Byg A, Hartel T, Hurley P, López-Santiago C.A., Nagabhatla, N, Oteros-Rozas, E, Raymond CM, Van der Horst D, Huntsinger L (2015a) The role of cultural ecosystem services in landscape management and planning. Curr Opin Environ Sustain, Open Issue 14, 28–33.
  91. Plieninger T, Kizos T, Bieling C, Le Dû-Blayo L, Budniok MA, Bürgi M, Crumley C, Girod G, Howard P, Kolen J, Kuemmerle T, Milcinski G, Palang H, Trommler K, Verburg P (2015b) Exploring ecosystem-change and society through a landscape lens: recent progress in European landscape research. Ecol Soc 20.
  92. Prosser CD, Bridgland DR, Brown EJ, Larwood JG (2011) Geoconservation for science and society: challenges and opportunities. Proc Geol Assoc 122:337–342. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rieppel O, Hagdorn H (1997) Paleobiogeography of Middle Triassic Sauropterygia in central and western Europe. In Ancient marine reptiles (pp. 121–144)Google Scholar
  94. Rieppel O, Mazin J. M, Tchernov E (1997) Speciation along rifting continental margins: a new nothosaur from the Negev (Israel). C RAcad Sci Ser IIA Earth Planet Sci, 325(12), 991–997Google Scholar
  95. Rophe B, Eyal Y, Eyal M (1993) The Ramon Laccolith. Isr J Earth Sci 42:125–131Google Scholar
  96. Rosen SA (1996) The decline and fall of Flint. In: Stone tools, interdisciplinary contributions to archaeology. Springer, Boston, pp 129–158Google Scholar
  97. Rosen SA (1997) Beyond milk and meat: lithic evidence for economic specialization in the Early Bronze Age pastoral periphery in the Levant. Lithic Technol 22:99–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Rosen SA (2003) Early multi-resource nomadism: excavations at the Camel Site in the central Negev. Antiquity 77(298):749–760. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rosen SA, Rosen YJ (2003) The shrine of the setting sun: survey of the sacred precinct at Ramat Saharonim. Isr Explor J 53(1):1–19Google Scholar
  100. Rosen SA, Tykot RH, Gottesman M (2005) Long distance trinket trade: Early Bronze Age obsidian from the Negev. J Archaeol Sci 32:775–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sagy Y, Gvirtzman Z, Reshef M (2017) 80 my of folding migration: new perspective on the Syrian arc from Levant Basin analysis. Geology 46(2):175–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Saltz D, Rubenstein DI (1995) Population dynamics of a reintroduced Asiatic wild ass (Equus Hemionus) herd. Ecol Appl 5:327–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Segev A, Aryeh I, Sergio P, Barbu, L (1994) The age of Arod Conglomerate by K-Ar dating of igneous pebbles, Makhtesh Ramon, southern Israel 9Google Scholar
  104. Segev A, Ilani S, Shirav M (2000) Map of mineral resources in Israel—raw materials for the building industryGoogle Scholar
  105. Segev A, Schattner U, Lyakhovsky V (2011) Middle–Late Eocene structure of the southern Levant continental margin—tectonic motion versus global sea-level change. Tectonophysics 499(1–4):165–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Shahar J (1994) The Syrian arc system: an overview. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 112(1–2):125–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Shimshilashvili E, Zinovy Y (2005) Mechanism of phenocryst formation in alkaline ultrabasic and basic volcanic rocks: evidence from Makhtesh Ramon, southern Israel. Isr J Earth Sci 54:113–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Shlosberg A, Wu Q, Rumbeiha WK, Lehner A, Cuneah O, King R, Hatzofe O, Kannan K, Johnson MB (2012) Examination of Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus fulvus) in Israel for exposure to environmental toxicants using dried blood spots. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 62(3):502–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. USDA Forest Service (1972) USDA Forest Service National Forest Landscape Management USDA Handbook Number 434, Volume I, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C (1972), p. 76Google Scholar
  110. Van der Meulen ES, Braat LC, Brils JM (2016) Abiotic flows should be inherent part of ecosystem services classification. Ecosyst Serv 19(1–5):1–5. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Vapnik Y (2005) Melt and fluid inclusions and mineral thermobarometry of mantle xenoliths in Makhtesh Ramon, Israel. Isr J Earth Sci 54:15–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Vimuktanadana S (1999) Geological map of Thailand Scale 1:2,500,000. Geological Survey Division Department of Mineral Resources, Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment, Bangkok ThailandGoogle Scholar
  113. Wannakomol A (2005) Soil and groundwater salinization problems in the Khorat Plateau, NE Thailand [Doctorate thesis]. Department of Earth Sciences, Freie University, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  114. Weissbrod T, Gvirtzman G, Conway BH (1994) The Early Cretaceous sequence of the sinaf-1 borehole (southern Negev) and its stratigraphic implications. Geol Surv Israel Curr Res 9:67–72Google Scholar
  115. Wieler N, Avni Y, Rosensaft M (2016) The significance of the geological strata on desert runoff agriculture: indications for stable desert environment over the last 1600 years in southern Israel. J Arid Environ 135:147–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wilson MA, Zatoń M, Avni Y (2012) Origin, palaeoecology and stratigraphic significance of bored and encrusted concretions from the Upper Cretaceous (Santonian) of southern Israel. Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments 92(3):343–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Yair A, Raz-Yassif N (2004) Hydrological processes in a small arid catchment: scale effects of rainfall and slope length. Geomorphology 61:155–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Yom-Tov Y, Hatzofe O, Geffen E (2012) Israel’s breeding avifauna: a century of dramatic change. Biol Conserv 147:13–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Zilberman E (1992) Remnants of Miocene landscape in the Central and Northern Negev and their paleo-geographical implications. Geol Surv Israel Bull 83:54Google Scholar
  120. Zilberman E (2000) Formation of makhteshim unique erosion cirques in the Negev, southern Israel. Isr J Earth Sci 49(3):127–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Zilberman E, Avni Y (2004) Geological map of Israel, Mitzpe Ramon sheet 1:50,000, the Geological Survey of IsraelGoogle Scholar
  122. Zilberman E, Eidelman A, Avni Y, Ginat H (2011) The Geology and the Landscape Evolution of the Negev Mountains – Southern Israel. Middle-East Nature Conservation Promotion Association, Israel Nature and Parks Authority, pp 206Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The European Association for Conservation of the Geological Heritage 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dead Sea and Arava Science CenterMitzpe RamonIsrael

Personalised recommendations