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Geoheritage

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 729–749 | Cite as

Mineralogical, Petrographic, and Physical Investigations on Fossiliferous Middle Jurassic Sandstones from Central Sardinia (Italy) to Define Their Alteration and Experimental Consolidation

  • Carla Buosi
  • Stefano ColumbuEmail author
  • Guido Ennas
  • Paola Pittau
  • Giovanni G. Scanu
Original Article

Abstract

In the present work, the mineralogical-petrographic and physical features of Middle Jurassic sandstones with macrofossil plant remains belonging to the Domenico Lovisato collection, housed at the Geological and Palaeontological Museum of the Cagliari University (Sardinia, Italy), have been studied to define the alteration processes and the consolidating treatment. These sandstones, coming from the Genna Selole formation (central Sardinia), show evident problems of physical decay, due to petrophysical and compositional characteristics such as high porosity, low cementing degree, and presence of clay minerals (e.g., phyllosilicates). This latter leads to subsequent cyclic mechanisms of hydration/dehydration, which affect these sedimentary rocks. For this purpose, five main different sandstone specimens with evident crystalline matrix decohesion have been selected and analyzed. To define their mineralogical-petrographic (composition, microstructure) and physical characteristics (real and bulk densities, helium porosity, water absorption, mechanical strength, etc.), the optical microscope (OM) in polarized light, X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRPD), helium and water pycnometer, and point load test were used. Testing the most suitable and compatible products for consolidation and time-saving of the palaeobotanical remains, several experimental treatment tests have been performed using four chemical products (i.e., alkoxysilane ethyl silicates and Na/K-silicate).

Keywords

Sandstone Palaeobotany Decay Porosity Mechanical strength 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors also thank the company Buccellato Freius S.r.l. (Italy) for having kindly provided the consolidant products used for this study.

Funding information

CB and GGS were financially supported by the Sardinia Regional Government (P.O.R. Sardegna F.S.E. Operational Programme of the Autonomous Region of Sardinia, European Social Fund 2007–2013—Axis IV Human Resources, Objective l.3, Line of Activity l.3.1 “Avviso di chiamata per il finanziamento di Assegni di Ricerca”).

Supplementary material

12371_2018_326_MOESM1_ESM.docx (125 kb)
Table SM1 . Results of water absorption kinetic determined by total immersion of specimen for the five analyzed sandstones (A, B, C, D, E) before and after the treatments with four chemicals, where reported the values of dry weight of specimens (g), progressive wet weights (g) and the relative progressive imbibition coefficients (ICPW) on the time (8 days) determined every 24 h. Data of sample D, due to its very low cementing degree, not has completed the absorption test. Abbreviations: n.d. = not determined. (DOCX 125 kb)
12371_2018_326_MOESM2_ESM.docx (116 kb)
Table SM2a . Physical mechanical data by Poin Load Test of five untreated sandstone samples (A, B, C, D, E). Symbols: W = width of specimen, where W1 and W2 are the main sizes used when the specimen not has a regular cubic shape; 2 L = length of specimen; D1 = initial distance between the two conical punches; D2 = operative distance between the two conical punches used as parameter to calculate the punching index; P = rupture load of specimen; De = “equivalent diameter of the carrot” (according to ISRM 1985, see methods); F = correction factor of punching index; Is = resistance to puncturing; Is(50) = resistance to puncturing normalized to a carrot with diameter of 50 mm. (DOCX 115 kb)
12371_2018_326_MOESM3_ESM.docx (115 kb)
Table SM2b . Physical mechanical data by Poin Load Test of five sandstone samples (A, B, C, D, E) treated with Indur IN chemical. Symbols as Table SM2a. (DOCX 115 kb)
12371_2018_326_MOESM4_ESM.docx (117 kb)
Table SM2c . Physical mechanical data by Poin Load Test of five sandstone samples (A, B, C, D, E) treated with Indur PI chemical. Symbols as Table SM2a. (DOCX 116 kb)
12371_2018_326_MOESM5_ESM.docx (112 kb)
Table SM2d . Physical mechanical data by Poin Load Test of five sandstone samples (A, B, C, D, E) treated with Indur FB chemical. Symbols as Table SM2a. (DOCX 112 kb)
12371_2018_326_MOESM6_ESM.docx (114 kb)
Table SM2e . Physical mechanical data by Poin Load Test of five sandstone samples (A, B, C, D, E) treated with Consolidant CM. Symbols as Table SM2a. (DOCX 114 kb)

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Copyright information

© The European Association for Conservation of the Geological Heritage 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e GeologicheUniversità degli Studi di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di MonserratoCagliariItaly

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