Sugar Tech

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 104–112 | Cite as

Polyphenol Removal from Sugarcane Juice by Using Magnetic Chitosan Composite Microparticles

  • Xing-quan LiangEmail author
  • Song-lin Fan
  • Jia-xing Zhang
  • Xiao-rong Song
Research Article


An easy one-step co-precipitation method was adopted to prepare chitosan/Fe3O4 composite microparticles (MCTS). Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and X-ray diffraction were utilized to examine the features of the microparticles. The results showed that the microparticles had a honeycomb-like porous framework with superparamagnetic properties and a saturation magnetization of ~ 43.4 emu g−1. The adsorption performance of polyphenols in sugarcane juice with using MCTS as adsorbent was also investigated. The adsorption kinetics indicated that the polyphenol adsorption process was suitable for the pseudo-second-order mode, while the Langmuir isotherm mode could be employed to best show the adsorption behavior. According to the thermodynamic parameter values, this adsorption process is endothermic and spontaneous. Recycling experiments indicated that the MCTS adsorbent had considerable reusability.


Adsorbent Magnetic chitosan Polyphenols Regeneration 



This work was supported by the Development and Application of Molasses Ethyl Alcohol Distillation Process Energy-Saving Technology Program (AE120094).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Abou El-Reash, Y.G., M. Otto, I.M. Kenawy, and A.M. Ouf. 2011. Adsorption of Cr(VI) and As(V) ions by modified magnetic chitosan chelating resin. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 49(4): 513–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad, M., K. Manzoor, P. Venkatachalam, and S. Ikram. 2016. Kinetic and thermodynamic evaluation of adsorption of Cu(II) by thiosemicarbazide chitosan. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 92: 910–919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmedna, M., W.E. Marshall, and R.M. Rao. 2000. Surface properties of granular activated carbons from agricultural by-products and their effects on raw sugar decolorization. Bioresource Technology 71: 103–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Astolfi-Filho, Z., V.R.N. Telis, E.B. de Oliveira, J.S.D.R. Coimbra, and J. Telis-Romero. 2011. Rheology and fluid dynamics properties of sugarcane juice. Biochemical Engineering Journal 53(3): 260–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bayramoglu, G., B. Altintas, and M.Y. Arica. 2009. Adsorption kinetics and thermodynamic parameters of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions by using a new strong cation-exchange resin. Chemical Engineering Journal 152(2–3): 339–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cai, Y., and Y. Lapitsky. 2017. Analysis of chitosan/tripolyphosphate micro- and nanogel yields is key to understanding their protein uptake performance. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 494: 242–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chai, B., H. Meng, Z. Zhao, Q. Huang, and X. Fu. 2016. Removal of color compounds from sugarcane juice by modified sugarcane bagasse: Equilibrium and kinetic study. Sugar Tech 18(3): 317–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen, Y., F. He, Y. Ren, H. Peng, and K. Huang. 2014. Fabrication of chitosan/PAA multilayer onto magnetic microspheres by LbL method for removal of dyes. Chemical Engineering Journal 249: 79–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cho, D., B. Jeon, C. Chon, F.W. Schwartz, Y. Jeong, and H. Song. 2015. Magnetic chitosan composite for adsorption of cationic and anionic dyes in aqueous solution. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 28: 60–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chokradjaroen, C., R. Rujiravanit, A. Watthanaphanit, S. Theeramunkong, N. Saito, K. Yamashita, and R. Arakawa. 2017. Enhanced degradation of chitosan by applying plasma treatment in combination with oxidizing agents for potential use as an anticancer agent. Carbohydrate Polymers 167: 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fan, L., C. Luo, X. Li, F. Lu, H. Qiu, and M. Sun. 2012. Fabrication of novel magnetic chitosan grafted with graphene oxide to enhance adsorption properties for methyl blue. Journal of Hazardous Materials 215–216: 272–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fan, L., C. Luo, Z. Lv, F. Lu, and H. Qiu. 2011. Preparation of magnetic modified chitosan and adsorption of Zn2+ from aqueous solutions. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 88(2): 574–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Funes, A., J. de Vicente, and I. de Vicente. 2017. Synthesis and characterization of magnetic chitosan microspheres as low-density and low-biotoxicity adsorbents for lake restoration. Chemosphere 171: 571–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ghosh, A.M., M. Balakrishnan, M. Dua, and J.J. Bhagat. 2000. Ultrafiltration of sugarcane juice with spiral wound modules: On-site pilot trials. Journal of Food Engineering 174(2): 205–216.Google Scholar
  15. Hugot, E. 2014. 25-Sulphitation. In Handbook-of-cane-sugar-engineering, ed. E. Hugot, 274–281. Amsterdam: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. ICUMSA. 1994. ICUMSA International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis Methods Book Ring-bound, 221.UK. International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis (pp. 172–178).Google Scholar
  17. Iordache, M.L., G. Dodi, D. Hritcu, D. Draganescu, O. Chiscan, and M.I. Popa. 2015. Magnetic chitosan grafted (alkyl acrylate) composite particles: Synthesis, characterization and evaluation as adsorbents. Arabian Journal of Chemistry 74(867): 28–32.Google Scholar
  18. Jiang, Y., J. Gong, G. Zeng, X. Ou, Y. Chang, C. Deng, J. Zhang, H. Liu, and S. Huang. 2016. Magnetic chitosan–graphene oxide composite for anti-microbial and dye removal applications. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 82: 702–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kalaycıoğlu, Z., E. Torlak, G. Akın-Evingür, İ. Özen, and F.B. Erim. 2017. Antimicrobial and physical properties of chitosan films incorporated with turmeric extract. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 101: 882–888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kyzas, G.Z., and N.K. Lazaridis. 2009. Reactive and basic dyes removal by sorption onto chitosan derivatives. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 331(1): 32–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Laksameethanasana, P., N. Somla, S. Janprem, and N. Phochuen. 2012. Clarification of sugarcane juice for syrup production. Procedia Engineering 32: 141–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Li, G., Y. Jiang, K. Huang, P. Ding, and L. Yao. 2008. Kinetics of adsorption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mandelated dehydrogenase on magnetic Fe3O4 chitosan nanoparticles. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 320(1–3): 11–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Li, L., L. Fan, M. Sun, H. Qiu, X. Li, H. Duan, and C. Luo. 2013. Adsorbent for chromium removal based on graphene oxide functionalized with magnetic cyclodextrin–chitosan. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 107: 76–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liao, B., W. Sun, N. Guo, S. Ding, and S. Su. 2016. Equilibriums and kinetics studies for adsorption of Ni(II) ion on chitosan and its triethylenetetramine derivative. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 501: 32–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lin, H., Q. Lu, S. Ge, Q. Cai, and C.A. Grimes. 2010. Detection of pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 with a wireless magnetoelastic-sensing device amplified by using chitosan-modified magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 147(1): 343–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Liu, Y., S. Jia, Q. Wu, J. Ran, W. Zhang, and S. Wu. 2011. Studies of Fe3O4-chitosan nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation under the magnetic field for lipase immobilization. Catalysis Communications 12(8): 717–720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Manuel, G., P. Fafael, and R. Ruben. 1980. Method of sugar refining with ozone. Processing International Social Sugar Cane Technology 3: 2066–2071.Google Scholar
  28. Meng, Y., D. Chen, Y. Sun, D. Jiao, D. Zeng, and Z. Liu. 2015. Adsorption of Cu2+ ions using chitosan-modified magnetic Mn ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. Applied Surface Science 324: 745–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mi, F., S. Wu, and Y. Chen. 2015. Combination of carboxymethyl chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles and chitosan-citrate complex gel beads as a novel magnetic adsorbent. Carbohydrate Polymers 131: 255–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nene, S., S. Kaur, K. Sumod, B. Joshi, and K. Raghavarao. 2002. Membrane distillation for the concentration of raw cane-sugar syrup and membrane clarified sugarcane juice. Desalination 147: 157–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ramasamy, P., N. Subhapradha, T. Thinesh, J. Selvin, K.M. Selvan, V. Shanmugam, and A. Shanmugam. 2017. Characterization of bioactive chitosan and sulfated chitosan from Doryteuthis singhalensis (Ortmann, 1891). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 99: 682–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Saha, N.K., M. Balakrishnan, and M. Ulbricht. 2009. Fouling control in sugarcane juice ultrafiltration with surface modified polysulfone and polyethersulfone membranes. Desalination 249(3): 1124–1131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shore, M., N.W. Broughton, D. Sargent, G.C. Jones, and B.W. Brown. 1988. Chapter 5: Ion exchange processes in beet sugar manufacture. Sugar series, vol. 9, 46–95. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Scholar
  34. Tran, H.V., L.D. Tran, and T.N. Nguyen. 2010. Preparation of chitosan/magnetite composite beads and their application for removal of Pb(II) and Ni(II) from aqueous solution. Materials Science and Engineering C 30(2): 304–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wang, J-s., R-t. Peng, J-h. Yang, Y-c. Liu, and X-j. Hu. 2011. Preparation of ethylenediamine-modified magnetic chitosan complex for adsorption of uranyl ions. Carbohydrate Polymers 84 (3): 1169–1175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wang, P., Q. Ma, D. Hu, and L. Wang. 2015. Removal of Reactive Blue 21 onto magnetic chitosan microparticles functionalized with polyamidoamine dendrimers. Reactive & Functional Polymers 91–92: 43–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wang, P., T. Yan, and L. Wang. 2013. Removal of congo red from aqueous solution using magnetic chitosan composite microparticles. BioResources 8(4): 6026–6043.Google Scholar
  38. Wu, Z., Z. Wang, J. Liu, J. Yin, and S. Kuang. 2016. Removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous water by l-arginine modifying magnetic chitosan. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 499: 141–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Xu, Y., Q. Dang, C. Liu, J. Yan, B. Fan, J. Cai, and J. Li. 2015. Preparation and characterization of carboxyl-functionalized chitosan magnetic microspheres and submicrospheres for Pb2+ removal. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 482: 353–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhao, F., W.Z. Tang, D. Zhao, Y. Meng, D. Yin, and M. Sillanpää. 2014. Adsorption kinetics, isotherms and mechanisms of Cd(II), Pb(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) by a modified magnetic polyacrylamide microcomposite adsorbent. Journal of Water Process Engineering 4: 47–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhu, H.Y., R. Jiang, L. Xiao, and G.M. Zeng. 2010. Preparation, characterization, adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics of novel magnetic chitosan enwrapping nanosized γ-Fe2O3 and multi-walled carbon nanotubes with enhanced adsorption properties for methyl orange. Bioresource Technology 101(14): 5063–5069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Sugar Research & Promotion 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Light Industry and Food Engineering College of Guangxi UniversityGuangxiChina

Personalised recommendations