Multi-criteria decision making for green supplier selection using interval type-2 fuzzy AHP: a case study of a home appliance manufacturer

  • Fatih EcerEmail author
Original paper


Many managers and firm owners nowadays pay special attention to green supplier selection to gain competitive advantage all over the world. Consequently, this subject a critical and significant decision for firms. This study utilizes an extension to analytical hierarchy process (AHP) under interval type-2 fuzzy environment (IT2FAHP) model to better cope with ambiguity and vagueness for solving supplier selection problem considering green concepts. A real case application is also performed in a home appliance manufacturer to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the IT2FAHP model in the present paper. The findings indicate that the most important factors that are effective in selecting green suppliers are cleaner production, energy/material saving, green package, remanufacturing, and environmental management system. Further, a comparison and a sensitivity analysis are conducted to display the consistency and stability of the proposed model. The findings reveal that the IT2FAHP model is quite consistent with the models in literature and green product, cleaner production, green design, and green package have a significant positive effect on performances of green suppliers.


Green supplier selection GSCM Interval type-2 fuzzy sets Interval type-2 fuzzy AHP IT2FAHP 



This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


  1. Abdullah L, Najib L (2014) A new type-2 fuzzy set of linguistic variables for the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process. Expert Syst Appl 41(7):3297–3305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdullah L, Zulkifli N (2018) A new DEMATEL method based on interval type-2 fuzzy sets for developing causal relationship of knowledge management criteria. Neural Comput Appl 31:1–17Google Scholar
  3. Aretoulis GN, Kalfakakou GP, Striagka FZ (2010) Construction material supplier selection under multiple criteria. Oper Res Int J 10(2):209–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Awasthi A, Kannan G (2016) Green supplier development program selection using NGT and VIKOR under fuzzy environment. Comput Ind Eng 91:100–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ayodele TR, Ogunjuyigbe ASO, Odigie O, Munda JL (2018) A multi-criteria GIS based model for wind farm site selection using interval type-2 fuzzy analytic hierarchy process: the case study of Nigeria. Appl Energy 228:1853–1869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bakeshlou EA, Khamseh AA, Asl MAG, Sadeghi J, Abbaszadeh M (2017) Evaluating a green supplier selection problem using a hybrid MODM algorithm. J Intell Manuf 28(4):913–927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bali O, Kose E, Gumus S (2013) Green supplier selection based on IFS and GRA. Grey Syst Theory Appl 3(2):158–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Banaeian N, Mobli H, Nielsen IE, Omid M (2015) Criteria definition and approaches in green supplier selection–a case study for raw material and packaging of food industry. Prod Manuf Res 3(1):149–168Google Scholar
  9. Bottani E, Centobelli P, Murino T, Shekarian E (2018) A QFD-ANP method for supplier selection with benefits, opportunities, costs and risks considerations. Int J Inf Technol Decis Mak 17(03):911–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Büyüközkan G, Çifçi G (2012) A novel hybrid MCDM approach based on fuzzy DEMATEL, fuzzy ANP and fuzzy TOPSIS to evaluate green suppliers. Expert Syst Appl 39(3):3000–3011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cao Q, Wu J, Liang C (2015) An intuitionsitic fuzzy judgement matrix and TOPSIS integrated multi-criteria decision making method for green supplier selection. J Intell Fuzzy Syst 28(1):117–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Celik E, Akyuz E (2018) An interval type-2 fuzzy AHP and TOPSIS methods for decision-making problems in maritime transportation engineering: the case of ship loader. Ocean Eng 155:371–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Celik E, Gumus AT, Alegoz M (2014) A trapezoidal type-2 fuzzy MCDM method to identify and evaluate critical success factors for humanitarian relief logistics management. J Intell Fuzzy Syst 27(6):2847–2855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Celik E, Gumus AT, Erdogan M (2015) A new extension of the ELECTRE method based upon interval type-2 fuzzy sets for green logistic service providers evaluation. J Test Eval 44(5):1813–1827Google Scholar
  15. Chatterjee S, Maji B, Pham H (2018) A fuzzy rule-based generation algorithm in interval type-2 fuzzy logic system for fault prediction in the early phase of software development. J Exp Theor Artif Intell 31:1–23Google Scholar
  16. Chen SM, Lee LW (2010) Fuzzy multiple attributes group decision-making based on the interval type-2 TOPSIS method. Expert Syst Appl 37(4):2790–2798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Çifçi G, Büyüközkan G (2011) A fuzzy MCDM approach to evaluate green suppliers. Int J Comput Intell Syst 4(5):894–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. de Oliveira UR, Espindola LS, da Silva IR, da Silva IN, Rocha HM (2018) A systematic literature review on green supply chain management: research implications and future perspectives. J Clean Prod 187:537–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Demir L, Akpınar ME, Araz C, Ilgın MA (2018) A green supplier evaluation system based on a new multi-criteria sorting method: VIKORSORT. Expert Syst Appl 114:479–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Demirel H, Akyuz E, Celik E, Alarcin F (2018) An interval type-2 fuzzy QUALIFLEX approach to measure performance effectiveness of ballast water treatment (BWT) system on-board ship. Ships Offshore Struct 14:1–9Google Scholar
  21. Diabat A, Khodaverdi R, Olfat L (2013) An exploration of green supply chain practices and performances in an automotive industry. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 68(1–4):949–961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. dos Santos BM, Godoy LP, Campos LM (2019) Performance evaluation of green suppliers using entropy-TOPSIS-F. J Clean Prod 207:498–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dube AS, Gawande RS (2016) Analysis of green supply chain barriers using integrated ISM-fuzzy MICMAC approach. Benchmarking Int J 23(6):1558–1578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ecer F (2014) A hybrid banking websites quality evaluation model using AHP and COPRAS-G: a Turkey case. Technol Econ Dev Econ 20(4):758–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ecer F (2015) Performance evaluation of internet banking branches via a hybrid MCDM model under fuzzy environment. Econ Comput Econ Cybern Stud Res 49(2):211–229Google Scholar
  26. Ecer F (2018) An integrated fuzzy AHP and ARAS model to evaluate mobile banking services. Technol Econ Dev Econ 24(2):670–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ecer F, Kınay AÖ, Nasiboglu E (2018) Determination of the financial support required by the families with disabilities to achieve standard life conditions with the AHP method. J Mehmet Akif Ersoy Univ Econ Adm Sci Fac 5(3):687–704Google Scholar
  28. Genovese A, Lenny Koh SC, Bruno G, Esposito E (2013) Greener supplier selection: state of the art and some empirical evidence. Int J Prod Res 51(10):2868–2886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Govindan K, Rajendran S, Sarkis J, Murugesan P (2015) Multi criteria decision making approaches for green supplier evaluation and selection: a literature review. J Clean Prod 98:66–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gupta S, Soni U, Kumar G (2019) Green supplier selection using multi-criterion decision making under fuzzy environment: a case study in automotive industry. Comput Ind Eng 136:663–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hagras HA (2004) A hierarchical type-2 fuzzy logic control architecture for autonomous mobile robots. IEEE Trans Fuzzy Syst 12(4):524–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Handfield RB, Walton SV, Seegers LK, Melnyk SA (1997) ‘Green’ value chain practices in the furniture industry. J Oper Manag 15(4):293–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kahraman C, Öztayşi B, Sarı İU, Turanoğlu E (2014) Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process with interval type-2 fuzzy sets. Knowl-Based Syst 59:48–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kannan D, de Sousa Jabbour ABL, Jabbour CJC (2014) Selecting green suppliers based on GSCM practices: using fuzzy TOPSIS applied to a Brazilian electronics company. Eur J Oper Res 233(2):432–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kara İ, Ecer F (2016) AHP-VIKOR entegre yöntemi ile tedarikçi seçimi: tekstil sektörü uygulaması. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi SBE Dergisi 18(2):255–272Google Scholar
  36. Keshavarz Ghorabaee M (2016) Developing an MCDM method for robot selection with interval type-2 fuzzy sets. Robot Comput-Integr Manuf 37:221–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Keshavarz Ghorabaee M, Zavadskas EK, Amiri M, Esmaeili A (2016) Multi-criteria evaluation of green suppliers using an extended WASPAS method with interval type-2 fuzzy sets. J Clean Prod 137:213–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Keshavarz Ghorabaee MK, Amiri M, Zavadskas EK, Turskis Z, Antucheviciene J (2017) A new multi-criteria model based on interval type-2 fuzzy sets and EDAS method for supplier evaluation and order allocation with environmental considerations. Comput Ind Eng 112:156–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Khamseh AA, Mahmoodi M (2014) A new fuzzy TOPSIS-TODIM hybrid method for green supplier selection using fuzzy time function. Adv Fuzzy Syst 3(1):1–10Google Scholar
  40. Kilic M, Kaya İ (2015) Investment project evaluation by a decision making methodology based on type-2 fuzzy sets. Appl Soft Comput 27:399–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Küçük O, Ecer F (2008) İmalatçı işletmelerde uygun tedarikçi seçimi: analitik hiyerarşi yöntemi ile bir KOBİ uygulaması. Atatürk Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi 22(2):435–450Google Scholar
  42. Lee LW, Chen SM (2008) Fuzzy multiple attributes group decision-making based on the extension of TOPSIS method and interval type-2 fuzzy sets. In: 2008 international conference on machine learning and cybernetics, vol 6, pp 3260–3265Google Scholar
  43. Lee AH, Kang HY, Hsu CF, Hung HC (2009) A green supplier selection model for high-tech industry. Expert Syst Appl 36(4):7917–7927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Li M, Wu C (2015) Green supplier selection based on improved intuitionistic fuzzy TOPSIS model. Metall Min Ind 6:193–205Google Scholar
  45. Liang Q, Mendel JM (2000) Interval type-2 fuzzy logic systems: theory and design. IEEE Trans Fuzzy Syst 8(5):535–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Liao CN, Fu YK, Wu LC (2016) Integrated FAHP, ARAS-F and MSGP methods for green supplier evaluation and selection. Technol Econ Dev Econ 22(5):651–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Liou JJ, Tamošaitienė J, Zavadskas EK, Tzeng GH (2016) New hybrid COPRAS-G MADM Model for improving and selecting suppliers in green supply chain management. Int J Prod Res 54(1):114–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Liu P, Gao H, Ma J (2019) Novel green supplier selection method by combining quality function deployment with partitioned Bonferroni mean operator in interval type-2 fuzzy environment. Inf Sci 490:292–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Malviya RK, Kant R (2015) Green supply chain management (GSCM): a structured literature review and research implications. Benchmarking Int J 22(7):1360–1394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mathiyazhagan K, Sudhakar S, Bhalotia A (2018) Modeling the criteria for selection of suppliers towards green aspect: a case in Indian automobile industry. Opsearch 55(1):65–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mavi RK, Kazemi S, Najafabadi AF, Mousaabadi HB (2013) Identification and assessment of logistical factors to evaluate a green supplier using the fuzzy logic DEMATEL method. Pol J Environ Stud 22(2):445–455Google Scholar
  52. Mendel JM (2000) Uncertainty, fuzzy logic, and signal processing. Sig Process 80(6):913–933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mendel JM (2017) Uncertain rule-based fuzzy logic systems: introduction and new directions. Springer, SwitzerlandCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mendel JM, John RB (2002) Type-2 fuzzy sets made simple. IEEE Trans Fuzzy Syst 10(2):117–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mendoza A, Ventura JA (2013) Modeling actual transportation costs in supplier selection and order quantity allocation decisions. Oper Res Int J 13(1):5–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mishra AR, Rani P, Pardasani KR, Mardani A (2019) A novel hesitant fuzzy WASPAS method for assessment of green supplier problem based on exponential information measures. J Clean Prod 238:117901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mohammadi H, Farahani FV, Noroozi M, Lashgari A (2017) Green supplier selection by developing a new group decision-making method under type 2 fuzzy uncertainty. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 93(1–4):1443–1462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mousakhani S, Nazari-Shirkouhi S, Bozorgi-Amiri A (2017) A novel interval type-2 fuzzy evaluation model based group decision analysis for green supplier selection problems: a case study of battery industry. J Clean Prod 168:205–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Niewiadomski A, Ochelska J, Szczepaniak PS (2006) Interval-valued linguistic summaries of databases. Control Cybern 35:415–443Google Scholar
  60. Onar SÇ, Öztayşi B, Kahraman C (2017) Interval type-2 FAHP: a multicriteria wind turbine selection. In: Emrouznejad A, Ho W (eds) Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process. Chapman and Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, pp 227–252Google Scholar
  61. Öztürk M, Paksoy T, Öztürk M (2017) Aralık Tip-2 Bulanık Kural Tabanlı Sistemlerin Tedarikçi Seçiminde Kullanımının Önemi Üzerine Bir Araştırma. Türkiye Bilişim Vakfı Bilgisayar Bilimleri ve Mühendisliği Dergisi 10(2):1–18Google Scholar
  62. Phochanikorn P, Tan C (2019) A new extension to a multi-criteria decision-making model for sustainable supplier selection under an intuitionistic fuzzy environment. Sustainability 11(19):5413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Qin J, Liu X, Pedrycz W (2017) An extended TODIM multi-criteria group decision making method for green supplier selection in interval type-2 fuzzy environment. Eur J Oper Res 258(2):626–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rostamzadeh R, Govindan K, Esmaeili A, Sabaghi M (2015) Application of fuzzy VIKOR for evaluation of green supply chain management practices. Ecol Ind 49:188–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sahu AK, Datta S, Mahapatra SS (2016) Evaluation and selection of suppliers considering green perspectives: comparative analysis on application of FMLMCDM and fuzzy-TOPSIS. Benchmarking Int J 23(6):1579–1604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Shaw K, Shankar R, Yadav SS, Thakur LS (2012) Supplier selection using fuzzy AHP and fuzzy multi-objective linear programming for developing low carbon supply chain. Expert Syst Appl 39(9):8182–8192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Shen L, Olfat L, Govindan K, Khodaverdi R, Diabat A (2013) A fuzzy multi criteria approach for evaluating green supplier’s performance in green supply chain with linguistic preferences. Resour Conserv Recycl 74:170–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sun J, Zhu Q (2018) Organizational green supply chain management capability assessment: a hybrid group decision making model application. IEEE Eng Manag Rev 46(1):117–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tseng ML, Islam MS, Karia N, Fauzi FA, Afrin S (2019) A literature review on green supply chain management: trends and future challenges. Resour Conserv Recycl 141:145–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tsui CW, Tzeng GH, Wen UP (2015) A hybrid MCDM approach for improving the performance of green suppliers in the TFT-LCD industry. Int J Prod Res 53(21):6436–6454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Uygun Ö, Dede A (2016) Performance evaluation of green supply chain management using integrated fuzzy multi-criteria decision making techniques. Comput Ind Eng 102:502–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Walters SJ (2009) Quality of life outcomes in clinical trials and health-care evaluation: a practical guide to analysis and interpretation. Wiley, ChichesterCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wu D, Tan WW (2006) Genetic learning and performance evaluation of interval type-2 fuzzy logic controllers. Eng Appl Artif Intell 19(8):829–841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wu T, Liu X, Liu F (2018) An interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS model for large scale group decision making problems with social network information. Inf Sci 432:392–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wu Q, Zhou L, Chen Y, Chen H (2019) An integrated approach to green supplier selection based on the interval type-2 fuzzy best-worst and extended VIKOR methods. Inf Sci 502:394–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Yazdani M (2014) An integrated MCDM approach to green supplier selection. Int J Ind Eng Comput 5(3):443–458Google Scholar
  77. Yazdani M, Hashemkhani Zolfani S, Zavadskas EK (2016) New integration of MCDM methods and QFD in the selection of green suppliers. J Bus Econ Manag 17(6):1097–1113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Yousefi S, Jahangoshai Rezaee M, Solimanpur M (2019) Supplier selection and order allocation using two-stage hybrid supply chain model and game-based order price. Oper Res Int J. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Yucesan M, Mete S, Serin F, Celik E, Gul M (2019) An integrated best-worst and interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS methodology for green supplier selection. Mathematics 7(2):182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Zadeh LA (1975) The concept of a linguistic variable and its application to approximate reasoning-I. Inf Sci 8(3):199–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zhao H, Guo S (2014) Selecting green supplier of thermal power equipment by using a hybrid MCDM method for sustainability. Sustainability 6(1):217–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Zhu J, Yu L (2012) Study on the determining and importance sequence of factors affecting GSCM+. In: 9th international conference of service systems and service management (proceedings of ICSSSM’12), pp 225–229Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Business Administrative, Faculty of Economics and Administrative SciencesAfyon Kocatepe UniversityAfyonkarahisarTurkey

Personalised recommendations