18F-sodium fluoride PET/MRI myocardial imaging in patients with suspected cardiac amyloidosis
We evaluated the diagnostic performance of 18F-NaF PET/MRI in patients with suspected cardiac amyloidosis (CA).
Twenty-seven consecutive patients underwent myocardial PET 1 hour after injection of 4 MBq/kg 18F-NaF with simultaneous MRI including cine-MRI, T1 and T2 mapping, first-pass and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). 18F-NaF uptake was measured visually and semi-quantitatively by calculating myocardium-to-blood pool (M/B) ratios. CA was confirmed histologically.
Transthyretin (TTR)-CA was diagnosed in 16 patients, light-chain (AL)-CA in 7, and no-CA in 4. Visual interpretation of 18F-NaF images revealed a relative increase in myocardial uptake in only 3 patients, all with TTR CA, and a relative decrease in 13, including 7 AL CA, 3 no-CA, and 3 TTR CA. M/B ratios were significantly higher in TTR CA (1.00 ± 0.12) than in AL CA (0.81 ± 0.06, P = 0.001) or in no-CA (0.73 ± 0.16, P = 0.006). The optimal M/B cut-off to distinguish TTR CA from AL CA was ≥ 0.90 (Fischer, P = 0.0005). By comparison, classification of patients using 99mTc-HMDP heart-to-mediastinum ratios with the previously published cut-off ≥ 1.21 reached higher significance (P < 0.0001). Among MRI parameters, myocardial T1, LGE score, and extracellular volume were higher in CA than in no-CA patients, 1409 ± 76 vs 1278 ± 35 ms (P = 0.004), 10.35 ± 5.30 vs 3.50 ± 3.42 (P = 0.03), and 46 ± 10 vs 33 ± 8 % (P = 0.01), respectively.
18F-NaF PET/MRI shows good diagnostic performance when semi-quantification is used. However, contrast is low and visual interpretation may be challenging in routine. PET/MRI could constitute a one-stop-shop evaluation of amyloid load and cardiac function in patients needing rapid work-up.
KeywordsCardiac amyloidosis 18F-sodium fluoride myocardial uptake PET/MRI
Positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging
Standardized uptake value
Late gadolinium enhancement
N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide
Receiver operating characteristics
All authors have approved the manuscript, and agree with its submission to the Journal of Nuclear Cardiology. There is no financial or other relation that could lead to a conflict of interest.
The procedure followed was in accordance with the ethical standards guidelines of the responsible committee on human experimentation.
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